Assessment of persistent organochlorine compounds contamination on the Lake Victoria water and sediments: A case study in Tanzania
The current study was conducted to establish the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), its degradation products, and indicatory polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water and sediments from Lake Victoria in Tanzania. Seven indicator PCBs were identified in sediments, and five were identified in water. The PCBs loading ranged from lower than the limit of detection (LOD) to 10.28 µg kg−1 DW and 0.95 to 2.24 µg l−1 in sediments and water, respectively. PCBs, CB 138 and CB 153 dominated the load, because of their chemical stability and high degree of chlorination. In addition, ten OCPs were identified in sediments, and seven OCPs were identified in water. The levels of organochlorine compounds in sediments were higher than in water samples, implying that sediments may serve as a sink for these compounds. The presence of these compounds is probably as a result of either historical use, long-range environmental transport or environmental persistence. The levels of organochlorine compounds in the lake water and sediments are below the maximum residue limit set by EU and FAO, except for aldrin and dieldrin. Based on the Threshold Effect Concentration (TEC) for freshwater ecosystems, aldrin and dieldrin are the only OCPs that seem to be a threat to the lake environment.
Keywords: drins, ecosystems, indicator PCBs, metabolites, OCPs, pollutants