Toxin production by Fusarium solani from declining citrus plants and its management
The core purpose of this current research was to meticulously survey four tehsils of Sargodha district and to probe the present status of citrus decline in infected citrus orchards. The utmost fungi (39.52%) were secluded from the roots followed by the soil (38.86%). The highest Fusarium sp. followed by Aspergillus, Phytophthora, Pythium, Penicillium and Alternaria species were remote from the collected samples of roots and soil from the four tehsils of Sargodha district of Pakistan. The maximum Fusarium sp. was isolated from the roots of declining citrus trees from tehsil Bhalwal (68.57%) followed by Kot Momin (65.87%), Sillanwali (55.87%) and Sargodha (50.32%). Toxin studies were also carried out using thin layer chromatography which revealed that F. solani produces toxins (anhydrofusarubin) which may cause decline in citrus. In vitro effect of fungicides on the mycelial growth rate of Fusarium solani exposed aliete to be more effective at 50 and 100 ppm, respectively. Ridomil Gold and Dithane M-45 showed same effect while Deconil showed least effect.
Key Words: Citrus, citrus decline, Fusarium solani, toxin, Anhydrofusarubin, aliete.