Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from aerobic rice
Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria are frequently used as plant growth promoters. A study was conducted to isolate phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from aerobic rice grown in Penang Malaysia and to determine some biochemical properties of the isolates such as, organic acids, enzymes, indoleacetic acid (IAA), siderophore production and its antagonistic effect against pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Selective media used for the isolation were; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), national botanical research institute's phosphate growth medium (NBRIP), Pikovskaya and Pseudomonas spp. (PS). Organic acid production was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The PSB populations were higher in rhizosphere than non-rhizospheric soil and the highest population was found in PS and Pikovskaya, while the lowest was found in PA media plates. The highest P solubilizing activity (69.58%) was found in PSB9 strain grown in NBRIP plate. Isolated PSB were able to produce different organic acids and growth hormone such as IAA. A number of PSB isolates belong to the Bacillus sp. and proved for the antagonistic effect against R. solani (sheath blight) even though most of the isolated strains can grow in nitrogen, free semi-solid medium and able to produce siderophore. PSB inoculants with their beneficial traits would be considered as potential biofertilizer for the sustainable aerobic rice cultivation system.
Key words: Aerobic rice, antagonistic effect, indoleacetic acid, organic acids, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria.