The influence of cross-breeding Zlotnicka Spotted native breed sows with boars of Duroc (D) and Polish Large White (PLW) breeds on meat quality
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of cross-breeding of Zlotnicka Spotted sows with Duroc and Polish Large White boars on the quality of meat of crossbred fatteners. The investigation was done on 50 carcasses of fatteners from four genetic groups: Zlotnicka Spotted x Zlotnicka Spotted (n = 20), Zlotnicka Spotted x Polish Large White (n = 10), Zlotnicka Spotted x Duroc (n = 10) and Zlotnicka Spotted x (Zlotnicka Spotted x Duroc, n = 10). The analysis of pH in the longissimus and semimembranosus muscles in all the genetic groups revealed typical values of meat without qualitative deviations. No statistically significant differences between the groups were observed. Pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat was found in one carcass of Zlotnicka Spotted x Zlotnicka Spotted group and two carcasses of Zlotnicka Spotted x Polish Large White group. The results of evaluation of physiochemical characteristics indicate very good quality of meat in all the groups of animals. The highest content of intramuscular fat, that is, 3.80%, was observed in the carcasses of the Zlotnicka Spotted x (Zlotnicka Spotted x Duroc) group. Statistical differences were found between this group and Zlotnicka Spotted x Polish Large White, in which the intramuscular fat content was 2.95%. The meat of all the genetic groups of pigs was characterised by desirable and the same colour in the profile of the longissimus muscle. However, similarly to many native breeds, this muscle was characterised by lesser lightness than breeds with high meat content. Also, the results of evaluation of sensory quality determinants, that is, flavour, juiciness, tenderness and palatability, which were higher than four points on average (one to five scale), confirmed perfect quality of the meat. To sum up, it is possible to say that the raw meat of Zlotnicka Spotted pigs and their cross-breeds with Duroc and Polish Large White breeds is characterised by good quality and because of its considerable intramuscular fat content, it has a high culinary and processing value, especially for ripening products.
Key words: Pigs, Z³otnicka Spotted, cross-breeds, meat quality.