Production and antagonistic effect of Trichoderma spp. on pathogenic microorganisms (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporium, Macrophomina phasealina and Rhizoctonia solani)
Trichoderma spp. are widely used as bio-fungicides in agriculture. Induction of plant defense and mycoparasitism (killing of one fungus by another) are considered to be the most important mechanisms of Trichoderma-mediated biological control. This study is based on the optimized production of Trichoderma viride. The media used for the economical production of T. viride conidia contain 5% jaggery and 0.5% baker’s yeast. It is clear that the growth and sporulation of Trichoderma mycelia require different temperatures. Mycelia had significant growth at 37°C and sporulation at 24°C (low temperature). For industrial production of T. viride conidia, it is suggested that the culture should be incubated initially at 37°C until the mycelia are formed and then at 24°C to induce sporulation. Formulating Trichoderma in talc is better than doing it in oil because the spores are hydrophilic in nature. There is current understanding of the interactions of Trichoderma with plant pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporium, Macrophomina phasealina and Rhizoctonia solani, and it is concluded that Trichoderma has antagonistic effect against these pathogens.
Key words: Trichoderma, induced resistance, biological control, mycoparasitism.