Effects of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on skin keratinocytes by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation
Advance glycation end-products (AGEs) are produced in patients with long-term hyperglycemia metabolic disorder and responsible for multiple symptoms including impaired wound healing. This study was designed to reveal the roles and possible mechanism of AGE in diabetic wound healing. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups randomly; the streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic group and the normal group. Eight weeks later, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and AGE levels, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) localization and cell viability were measured in vivo. Keratinocytes from normal skin were cultured in AGE-enriched conditional media, and the cell viability, apoptosis, adhesion and migration were detected in order to find the directed evidence between AGE and keratinocytes. AGE content was higher and NF-κB expression was more localized in the nuclear of keratinocytes in diabetic skins. AGE could inhibit normal cell growth by inducing apoptosis and arresting cell division cycle, inhibiting cell adhesion and promoting migration which might be mediated by NF-κB in vitro. Blocking NF-κB activity could reverse effects of AGE on cell proliferation and migration, but not adhesion. Therefore, AGE could damage the skin keratinocytes function in vivo and in vitro, and the activation of NF-κB is involved in this process.
Key words: AGE, NF-kappaB, keratinocytes, diabetes, wound healing.