Genetic diversity in Indian sub-continental landrace cultivars of the genus Triticum L.
Narrowing genetic diversity is a limiting factor in wheat breeding. Popularity of semi dwarf cultivars, developed after green revolution, has resulted in genetic erosion as they replaced indigenous cultivars derived from landraces. These old cultivars have a wealth of useful genes that can be incorporated in the modern cultivars to improve their tolerance level against biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetic analysis of these indigenous and advanced cultivars by the SSR markers has shown greater diversity in this valuable Indian sub-continental germplasm and grouped them into seven units. The Triticum durum lines T2 and T3 were placed in group A, whereas their counterpart T1 was quite distinct. Of the selections, T4 to T9 that was clustered in Group B, T4 to T7 were of Triticum sphaerococcum, whereas the other two were of Triticum aestivum type. T. aestivum cultivar C-248 also appeared to be distinct and could not be grouped with any other cultivar. Based on genetic divergence, therefore, T1 can be used for enhancing diversity in T. durum and C-248 in T. aestivum.
Keywords: Triticum, germplasm, simple sequence repeats, genetic diversity