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African Journal of Biotechnology

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Phyto-nutrient composition and antioxidative potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Sida acuta in wistar albino rats

P Nwankpa, OG Chukwuemeka, GC Uloneme, CC Etteh, P Ugwuezumba, D Nwosu

Abstract


Phytochemical, micronutrient composition and anti-oxidative potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Sida acuta in albino wistar rats were investigated using standard analytical methods. The result (mg/100 g) for phytochemical composition were 91.46 ± 0.02 tannin, 1500.36 ± 0.36 alkaloid, 530.27 ± 0.03 saponin, 1163.86 ± 0.1 flavonoid, 1454.50 ± 0.85 steriod, 115.29 ± 0.05 terpeniods and 851.62 ± 0.01 cardiac glycosides. The vitamin composition (mg/100 g) were 0.36 ± 0.01 thiamin, 0.19 ± 0.02 niacin, 24.27 ± 0.25 ascorbic acid, 1.85 ± 0.32 tocopherol, 0.12 ± 0.05 riboflavin while mineral composition (mg/100 mg) was 14428 ± 0.02, 122.11 ± 0.01, 325.12 ± 0.02 for calcium, magnesium and zinc, respectively. To determine the antioxidative potential, twenty-four adult wistar albino rats were divided into four groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 received feed and water (control) while group 2, 3 and 4 in addition to feed and water were treated with ethanol leaf extract of S. acuta at 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight, respectively. After 14 days of treatment; the rats were sacrificed and plasma obtained for oxidative stress indices assay. The result showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in mean values of plasma malondialdehyde concentration and a significant increase (P < 0.05) in reduced glutathione concentration at 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight compared to the control group. Plasma catalase and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased (P < 0.05) only in animals treated with 60 mg/kg body weight compared to the control group. The result showed that ethanolic leaf extract of S. acuta possesses an antioxidant property which, in a dose dependent manner, reduces/ameliorates oxidative stress in rats.

Keywords: Sida acuta, rats, micronutrients, phytochemical, oxidative stress




http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB2015.14897
AJOL African Journals Online