Evaluation of the wound healing potential of Protea madiensis Oliv leaf extract in rats
Protea madiensis Oliv. is a flowering shrub which grows in south eastern Nigeria. Liquids extracted from its leaves are applied on wounds to promote healing. To investigate the effect of P. madiensis on wound healing, its methanol extract was applied topically on excision wounds daily. During the experimental period, the rate of contraction, epithelialisation and histology of the wounds were studied. Also, in vitro antibacterial study, 1,1-diphenyl-2-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and phytochemical analysis were performed using P. madiensis extract. Wound contraction and epithelialisation were significantly (p < 0.05) faster in the P. madiensis treated rats compared to the control rats. On day 14 post wounding, wound sections of the extract treated rats showed more collagen fibers, more fibroblasts and fewer inflammatory cells compared to the control. At 5, 10 and 20 mg/ml concentrations, P. madiensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The extract at 100 μg/ml showed 60.4% DPPH scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and glycosides in the extract. In conclusion, the extract of P. madiensis significantly enhanced wound contraction, epithelialisation, fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition thus authenticating the claim of its efficacy in traditional wound care.
Key words: Protea madiensis, excision wounds, antioxidant, fibroblasts, antibacterial.