Analysis of bone mass density of lumbar spine zone of athletes
This study was carried out to evaluate T-Z scores of lumbar spine zone (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4) bone mass density (BMD) of elite active male athletes in different branches and to determine the differences between them. 42 healthy male athletes aged 18 - 25 competing in different branches (Taekwondo 12, wrestling 8, Judo 10, Running 12) volunteered to take part in the study during the competition period. The measurements of the athletes were taken from lumbar spine zone (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4) with Dual energy X-Ray Absortiometry (DEXA) through Hologic 4500W QDR apparatus. The BMD values obtained by the measurements taken from each lumbar spine zone and T and Z scores were used in calculating statistical data. In the comparison with regard to BMD and T, Z scores, it was determined that the highest BMD and Z, T score belonged to the wrestlers and judo, taekwondo competitors, and runners followed them in the same order. Lumbar spine zone BMD values (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1- L4) and T and Z scores between the branches were compared with regard to statistics, and it was determined that there were statistically significant differences between the branches (p < 0.05). In general, lumbar spine BMD and T and Z scores of the wrestlers were higher than the athletes in judo, taekwondo competitors, and runners (p < 0.05), it was the same in judo and taekwondo competitors, and the lowest in the runners (p < 0.05). The reason why lumbar spine zone BMD and T and Z scores of the wrestlers were higher may be due to the fact that the wrestlers have to do exercises putting more mechanical load on the bones, a special activity their branch requires.
Key words: Athletes, different sport branches, bone mass density, exercise.