Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic forms of Detarium senegalense J. F. GMEL
In Senegal, Detarium senegalense J.F. Gmel. (ditax in Wolof) is one of the most important forest fruit species. However, exploitation of the edible fruit is based on local people’s knowledge. Only trees whose fruits are consumed by animals are exploited. To identify them, a chemical comparison of edible and toxic forms was done in order to highlight differences between both forms. Dichloromethane leaf extracts from toxic and edible trees were analyzed by gas chromatography. Phenolic profile and volatile compounds from fruits extracts were studied respectively by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Cytotoxicity effect of fruits extracts was evaluated on murine macrophage cells J774 A1. GC analysis of dichloromethane leaf extracts revealed the presence of lupenone and lupeol only in toxic extracts. 6’-O-galloyl-epiheterodendrin and isovaleronitrile were detected in toxic pulp. However, no cytotoxic effect was found in our conditions. This study has given the opportunity to identify within the same species, compounds which could differentiate both edible and toxic forms. Nevertheless further studies are needed to better understand which compounds are responsible for toxicity in the toxic form.
Key words: Ditax, Detarium senegalense, toxicity, lupeol, lupenone, cyanogenic glycoside, isovaleronitrile