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African Journal of Biotechnology

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Protection of rats by extracts of some common Nigerian trees against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

OO Ojo, MS Nadro, IO Tella

Abstract


Extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Khaya senegalensis, Prosopis africana and Vitellaria paradoxa were screened for their phytochemical constituents. Stem barks of the species were also investigated for hepatoprotective effects in Wistar albino rats. Different groups of animals were pre-treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of plant extracts for 10 days and administered with paracetamol (2 g/kg) on the 10th day. The effect of the extracts on serum transaminase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in the rats. The leaf, stem and root extracts of all the plants except Vitellaria paradoxa showed preponderance of saponin and tannin. Phlobatannin, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones were observed in concentrations ranging between 10 to 100 mg/kg plant material. Stem bark extracts of the four plants produced significant (P < 0.05) hepatoprotective effects by decreasing the activity of serum enzymes. Values recorded for AST, ALT and ALP were significantly lower compared to those recorded for control rats. A higher inhibition of serum level elevation of ALP was observed with the four extracts. From these results, it was suggested that the extracts could protect the liver cells from paracetamolinduced liver damages perhaps by eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from the drug



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