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African Journal of Biotechnology

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Municipal landfill leachates induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells

CG Alimba, AA Bakare, CA Latunji

Abstract


This study examined the potential mutagenic effects of raw and simulated leachates from Olushosun municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill using rat bone marrow chromosome aberration assay. Raw
leachate obtained directly from the landfill and simulated leachate obtained via the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) category-A extraction procedure were examined for their physical and
chemical properties. Rats were intraperitoneally exposed to 1 - 25% concentrations of the leachates for 48 h. The erythroblasts of the bone marrow cells examined post treatment show structural chromosomal
abnormalities such as breaks, gaps, rings and acentrics. The induction was dose dependent (r =0.80 and 0.85 for ORL and OSL, respectively). Physico-chemical and heavy metal analysis of the test samples showed that they contained high concentrations of toxic anions and cations that are capable of inducing mutation in living cells. The interaction of these constituents with the genetic material in the bone marrow cells of rat caused the observed chromosome aberrations. Our data indicate that MSW leachates can induce genotoxicity in rat and suggest potential health risk to human populations.



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