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African Journal of Biotechnology

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The role of biotechnology in the socio-economic advancement and national development: An Overview

IO Okonko, OP Olabode, OS Okeleji

Abstract


Biotechnology is any technique which involves the application of biological organisms or their components, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries to make or modify products, to improve plants or animals or to develop micro-organisms for special uses. Since 1953, when James Watson and Francis Crick identified the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the genetic basis of all living organisms, the scientific understanding of biological and genetic processes has dramatically accelerated. The present molecular techniques such as cloning, genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) involve genetic manipulations using microorganisms such as bacteriophages and bacterial plasmids as vectors and bacterial cells as hosts.
Biotechnology revolution has spawned new industries focused on manipulating human, animal, plant and microbial agents to create heretofore unattainable products and services. Biotechnology occupies
a very strategic position in the socio-economic advancement and development of the nation in particular and the world at large.



AJOL African Journals Online