Determination of levels of fluoride and trace metal ions in drinking waters and remedial measures to purify water
AbstractFluoride is recognized to be most effective caries-preventive agent. The main source of fluoride for people is generally food and drinking water. For this reason, fluoride and other metal ion concentrations in the drinking water samples were estimated. For the determination of fluoride, Na, Li and K an ion – meter and flame photometer were used. While the concentrations of other metal ions (Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Fe, Zn and Cu) were estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Statistical parameters and multiple correlations between paired water samples were also calculated. For the purification of water, adsorption technique was adopted using Al2O3 and Al2O3 -Pb 0.1, Al2O3 – Pb 0. 01 doping systems. Adsorption isotherm equations were also applied to calculate the values of respective constants. Thermodynamic parameters (DGo, DHo and DSo) were also calculated. According to the
results obtained, the metal ion concentration in the drinking waters in the studied area are within the safe drinking water regulation limits and also the fluoride level is lower then the permissible limit for