Phytochemical evaluation and antibacterial profile of Treculia africana Decne bark extract on gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens

  • SO Ogbonnia
  • NV Enwuru
  • EU Onyemenem
  • GA Oyedele
  • CA Enwuru
Keywords: Treculia africana, antibacterial, pathogen, phytochemistry.

Abstract

Treculia africana Decne (Fam. Moraceae) is a highly valued economic plant, as well as an important medicinal plant widely used in the traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments of
both microbial and non-microbial origins. It was, therefore, investigated for activity in vitro on pathogenic bacterial isolates of gastrointestinal tract. Fresh plant materials were collected from the Forestry Division in Oyo State and the aqueous ethanol (70%) extracts of the powdered bark were obtained by maceration method. The bacterial organisms tested were Salmonella typhi (ATCC24682), Shigella dysentriae (ATCC23513), Escherichia coli (Clinical isolate), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC12462) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC23815). Susceptibility testing and phytochemical screening of the plant extracts were performed by standard procedures. Aqueous ethanol extract of T.
africana was effective on the tested organisms. The mean Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of the extract ranged from 3.125 to 25 mg/ml for different organisms tested. The extract exhibited
minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 50 mg/ml on S. dysentriae and P. aeruginosa only, while other tested bacteria strains required higher concentrations. Phytochemical screening revealed the
presence of steroidal saponin glycosides as the major component, anthraquinone glycoside and polyphenols. Our results offer a scientific basis for the traditional use of T. africana. The aqueous
ethanol extract of the bark was effective in vitro in this study on gastrointestinal bacteria pathogens, and thus could be explored for further pharmaceutical use.
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eISSN: 1684-5315