Electrolyte profiles in Nigerian patients with essential hypertension

  • GBS Iyalomhe
  • EKI Omogbai
  • RI Ozolua
  • FL Dada
  • OOB Iyalomhe
Keywords: Electrolytes, mild to moderate hypertension, Nigerians.

Abstract

Information is inadequate on the serum and urine electrolyte profiles in Nigerians with mild to moderate essential hypertension. We, therefore, measured the levels of Na+, K+ and Cl- in 40 adult Nigerians with
untreated uncomplicated mild to moderate hypertension and compared these values with those obtained from age and sex-matched normotensives. Electrolytes were measured using ion-selective
electrolyte analyzer. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 127.20 ± 4.20 mmHg in the hypertensives as compared to 92.27 ± 6.25 mmHg in the normotensives. Both groups of subjects had comparable weight
and body mass indices. Results show that in the hypertensives serum, levels of Na+ (152.8 ± 2.14 mmol l-1) and Cl- (115.4 ± 2.62 mmol l-1) were significantly higher than in the normotensives (Na+: 136.0 ± 3.23; Cl-: 102.2 ± 2.52 mmol l-1). Serum K+ levels were significantly lower in the hypertensives than in the normotensives (4.01 ± 0.08 vs 4.82 ± 0.03 mmol l-1). The hypertensives excreted more Na+ (300.9 ± 41.30 mmol l-1) and Cl- (278.6 ± 4.39 mmol l-1) than the normotensives (Na+: 147.10 ± 1.10, Cl-: 126.40 ± 1.51
mmol l-1). Urinary K+ level in the hypertensives was significantly higher than in the normotensives (73.70± 0.73 vs 55.60 ± 0.63 mmol l-1). We conclude that mild to moderately hypertensive Nigerians show
significant differences in their levels of serum and urinary Na+, K+ and Cl- from their normotensive counterparts. The relatively higher serum Na+ and Cl- concentrations and the corresponding lower
serum K+ may indicate their roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension in these patients.
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