G×E interaction effects on yield and yield components of cassava (landraces and improved) genotypes in the savanna regions of Nigeria
AbstractGenetic enhancement of cassava aimed at increasing production and productivity through the provision of broad-based improved germplasm is a major goal for cassava breeders. At the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria, 18 varieties comprising 12 landraces and 6
broad-based and improved varieties were evaluated at 4 locations in 3 years in a randomized complete block design in 4 replicates to determine variability among cultivars for yield components and adaptation to different environments. Results showed fresh root yield was significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with number of roots, harvest index, shoot weight and number of stands harvested. AMMI analysis partitioned main effects into genotypes, environments and G × E with all the components
showing highly significant effects (P < 0.001). Environment had the greatest effect (70.3%), G × E interaction (19.0%) and genotype (10.7%). AMMI1 and unadjusted means selected the same winner in 9
out of 12 environments (75%),but differently in 3 environments. The GGE biplot (E and GxE interaction) delineated environments into ega-environments. Cultivar 4(2)1425 (moderately yielding) was the most
stable and specifically adapted to Zaria. ABBEY-IFE, ATU-IWO and 2ND-AGRIC though moderately yielding were highly tolerant to CMD, suggesting a rich resource within the germplasm that could be
enhanced for further genetic improvement of the crop.