Water pollution: A review of microbial quality and health concerns of water, sediment and fish in the aquatic ecosystem
Keywords: Pollution, microbial quality, health concerns, aquatic ecosystem
AbstractThis paper reviewed aquatic ecosystem pollution with particular reference to pathogens in water, sediment and fish and their human health concerns. It highlighted the historical perspective of the relationship between microbes and humans regarding the “ranging war” between them, arising from
the reckless exploitation of the biosphere by humans and the resultant “revolt” by microbes in the form of various pathogenic diseases that now plague mankind. Also highlighted are pathogens and diseases in both wild and cultured fish, citing reported cases in Nigeria to include Samonella, Shigella and Leptospira spp., Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas florescens, Aeromonas hydrophilla, Staphylococus aureus, Klebsiella aerogenes, Edwardsiella tarda and Flexibacter columnaris. Some human diseases contacted from contaminated/infected fish and fisheries’ products that have been reported in Nigeria were reported to include: food poisoning and gastroenteritis, diarrhea, bacillary dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid, clonorchiasis and superficial
wound infections and ulcers. In conclusion, the paper reviewed the modes of infection of water related and fish-borne diseases of human health concerns and recommended ways to ameliorate their infection and spread.
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