Growth and yield response of wheat to EM (effective microorganisms) and parthenium green manure
Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is rapidly spreading in many countries around the world and has become a serious threat to nature as well as managed ecosystems. The present pot experiment was conducted in 2005 -2006 to study the effect of parthenium green manure (1, 2, 3 and 4% on fresh weight bases) and EM (effective microorganisms), a biofertilizer, on the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EM application was carried out by applying 1 L of 0.2% dilution of the
commercial stock EM solution per pot at fortnight intervals throughout the experimental period. Plants were harvested at flowering and maturity stages. Shoot length and dry biomass were gradually increased by increasing the quantity of green manure. There was 272% increase in shoot dry biomass over control at maturity due to 4% green manure application as compared to 137% increase due to recommended dose of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertilizer. Highest root biomass was
recorded in 3% green manure amended treatment. Spike length, number of grains per spike and grains yield was also gradually increased by increasing the quantity of green manure. There was 43 to 253%
increase in grain yield over control due to various green manure treatments as compared to 96% increase due to NPK fertilizers over control. EM application in un-amended control, NPK fertilizers as
well as in various green manure treatments either exhibited insignificant effect or significantly reduced various studied parameters. The present study concludes that parthenium weed has the potential to be used as green manure for wheat.
Key words: Effective microorganisms, green manure, parthenium, wheat