Adsorptive removal of direct dyes by low cost rice husk: Effect of treatments and modifications
In the present study, free, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-immobilized, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate immobilized and chemically treated rice husk biomass was used for the biosorption of Everdirect Orange-3GL and Direct Blue-67 dyes. Maximum biosorption capacity of free, immobilized and hydrochloric acid treated biomass was observed for both dyes at low pH. Comparative study of free, immobilized and HCl treated biomass showed that, the HCl treated biomass exhibited more biosorption capacity (29.98 and 37.92 mg/g) for Everdirect Orange-3GL and Direct Blue-67, respectively. Equilibrium time was less for HCl treated biomass when compared with immobilized biomass. The Langmuir type 1 and 2 models were best fitted to experimental data for free, CMC, polyvinyl alcohol-alginate immobilized and HCl treated biomass in case of Everdirect Orange-3GL, while the equilibrium data of Direct Blue-67 followed the Langmuir type 2 isotherm. Pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models illustrated good fitness to all types of biomasses showing chemisorption nature of biosorption. The amount of dyes sorbed (mg/g) increased with increase in temperature. The values of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) showed that reaction was spontaneous at high temperature.
Key words: Biosorption, kinetics, thermodynamics, direct dyes, immobilization, pretreatments.