Free radical-scavenging and antimutagenic potential of acetone, chloroform and methanol extracts of fruits of Argemone mexicana
The antioxidant potency of acetone, chloroform and methanol extracts of Argemone mexicana was investigated by employing in vitro systems like nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay whereas antimutagenic activity was determined
by Maron and Ames assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 tester strain against sodium azide. In this study, dried fruits of A. mexicana were extracted with different solvents by maceration method in order of increasing polarity. It was observed that, acetone extracts were comparatively more effective than the other extracts in both the assays. The maximum inhibitory activities noticed were 79.0 and 71.0% in NBT and DPPH assay, respectively, at the maximum concentration tested. The inhibitory potential was compared with standard antioxidant (L-ascorbic acid). The IC50 value of the acetone extract of the fruit of A. mexicana was more than that of L-ascorbic acid showing the maximum inhibitory effect. Among the different extracts, the antimutagenic effect of methanol extract was found to be more followed by acetone and chloroform extracts. The methanol extract showed maximum inhibition of 80.5% at doses of 1.00~1033 μg/ml in pre-incubation modes of the experiments, respectively. Chloroform extract showed maximum inhibition of 62.14 and 50.71% in co-incubation and pre-incubation mode of experiments at the highest concentration tested. Antimutagenicity of the acetone extract was more in co-incubation than pre-incubation mode of the
experimentation. These results indicate that, A. mexicana fruit extracts have antioxidant as well as antimutagenic properties. The antioxidant and antimutagenic activities were significantly correlated.
Key words: Argemone mexicana, antioxidant, antimutagenic, sodium azide.