Nature and role of root exudates: Efficacy in bioremediation
Root exudate is one of the ways for plant communication to the neighboring plant and adjoining of microorganisms present in the rhizosphere of the root. The chemicals ingredients of the root exudates are specific to a particular plant species and also depend on the nearby biotic and abiotic environment. The chemical ingredient exuded by plant roots include amino acids, sugars, organic acids, vitamins, nucleotides, various other secondary metabolites and many other high molecular weight substances as primarily mucilage and some unidentified substances. Through the exudation of a wide variety of compounds, roots may regulate the soil microbial community in their immediate vicinity, cope with herbivores, encourage beneficial symbioses, change the chemical and physical properties of the soil and inhibit the growth of competing plant species. Root exudates mediate various positive and negative interactions like plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions. The present review has been undertaken to examine the possible role of root exudates on the removal of the polluted matter and nourishing the neighboring microorganisms present in the rhizosphere of the root.
Key words: Rhizosphere, root exudates, bioremediation, rhizoremediation.