In vivo, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
The study was designed to evaluate the effect of Citrullus colocynthis pulp hydro-ethanol extract on alloxan-induced hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats. 24 albino rats with body weights of 150 to 200 g were divided into one control and three experimental groups. Group 1 was the normal control rats, orally administered physiological saline. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were diabetic rats orally administered physiological saline (diabetic, untreated), glibenclamide (diabetic, GL) or C. colocynthis extract (300 mg /kg) (diabetic, CC), respectively. All treatments were administered orally, on a daily basis, for a period of 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, animals in all the four groups were fasted for 12 h and then sacrificed. Blood samples and liver tissues were taken for the determination of total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids. Portions of the liver were homogenized and used for determination of lipid peroxidation biomarkers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides (HPx)], and for biological antioxidant levels [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)]. The results show significant decreases in the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids in serum and liver of C. colocynthis treated diabetic rats when compared to diabetic untreated rats. Also, relative to diabetic untreated rats, oral administration of C. colocynthis to diabetic rats significantly reduced elevated levels of liver TBARS and HPx to near normal levels and caused significant increases in GSH, SOD and CAT levels, an effect that is comparable to but more pronounced than that of glibenclamide. These results indicate that C. colocynthis pulp hydro-ethanol extract possesses potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant actions in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Key words: Citrullus colocynthis, alloxan diabetes, hypolipidemia, antioxidant.