Antifungal activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) extract on Fusarium species
The basil extract composition was determined by the GC-MS method and 38 different components were identified. The major components of the basil extract were estragol (86.72%), trans-α-bergamotene (2.91%), eucalyptol (2.67%), trans-ocimene (1.04%), linalool (0.72%), methyl-eugenol (0.71%), etc. The antifungal potential of the basil extract was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, and F. verticillioides isolated from cakes, using the agar plate method. Extract concentrations of 0.35 and 0.70% (v/v) significantly inhibited the growth of F. proliferatum (33.37 and 44.30%, respectively) and F. subglutinans (24.74 and 29.27%, respectively) whereas other investigated Fusarium species exhibited much lower sensitivity. The basil extract completely inhibited the growth of investigated Fusarium spp. at the concentration of 1.50% (v/v). Higher concentrations (0.35 and 0.70% (v/v)) reduced growth of aerial mycelium in all tested species. Strong medium pigmentation in the case of F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides was observed. The microscopic examination of the samples confirmed the presence of hyphae deformations with a frequent occurrence of fragmentations, thickenings and diminished sporulation. In addition to the basic, sensory, role the extract of basil has in the food product, it exerted significant antifungal properties, depending on its concentration.
Key words: Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) extract, components, antifungal activity, Fusarium spp.