Toxicokinetic behaviors and modes of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) are widely distributed environmentally persistent organic pollutants found at low levels in human and wildlife ecosystem. The objectives of the current study were to investigate toxicokinetic behaviors and modes of PFOS and PFOA on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The toxicokinetic behaviors and modes of PFOS and PFOA are different in tilapia during experimental periods. Exposure to both PFOS and PFOA was approximately 5 to 6 times higher for male tilapia than for female tilapia. The terminal half-life of PFOA in serum was about 4 times longer for male tilapia than for female tilapia. The apparent volume of distribution for PFOS and PFOA in the serum was about 3 to 4 times higher for female tilapia than for male tilapia. The lymphocytes level decreased rapidly with the increased PFOA concentration. A similar pattern was observed with the PFOS exposure, and it is remarkable that PFOS and PFOA were significantly accumulated in both PFOS and PFOA exposure but PFOA showed a greater effect than PFOS. PFOA blood concentrations were lesser than the limit of quantification in non-exposure tilapia during an uptake period, while measured PFOS concentrations were at least six times lesser than those in PFOS exposure. Tilapia weight gain was also decreased with statistical significance in all PFOA-treated groups, and the effect of PFOA was higher than that of PFOS. The effects of PFOA in survival percent were more pronounced in this case than that of PFOS. Moreover, PFOA had similar mode, and PFOS and PFOA can inhibit the 17β-HSD3 enzyme activity of tilapia.
Key words: Toxicokinetic, behaviors, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctane acid (PFOA), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).