Safety evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome in rats
Plant materials have long been known to contain biochemical substances that could have adverse effects on animal tissues. This study was initiated to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome on biochemical and haematological indices of hepatotoxicity in adult albino Wistar rats. Four groups of five rats per group were used. Group A was given only distilled water and served as control, while groups B, C and D were given 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively, by oral administration for four weeks. The results revealed that there was a dose-dependent significant increase (p<0.05) in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides and total bilirubin of all the treatments groups when compared with the control group, while the high density lipoprotein cholesterol of all the treatment groups was significantly (p<0.05) reduced. The 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract produced a significant decrease (p<0.05) in PCV and haemoglobin concentration. The levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, glucose, albumin, globulin and total protein of all the treatment groups were not significantly (p>0.05) altered. These results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of C. planchonii rhizome might be injurious to the liver, if administered at a high dose and over a prolonged period of treatment.
Key words: Cochlospermum planchonii, hydroalcoholic, haematology, biochemistry, hepatotoxicity.