Effect of Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin on haematological parameters of dogs
In this study, the effect of two fluoroquinolones employed in small and companion animal medicine were evaluated. The haemogram of eight healthy dogs administered with oral ciprofloxacin (25mg/kg) or levofloxacin (25mg/kg) 12hourly for 14days was assessed using the packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell counts, haemoglobin concentration, total white blood cells and the differential counts and platelet count. Blood samples were collected before commencement of treatment on day 0 and subsequently on days 2, 5, 7, 10 and 14. Dogs administered with ciprofloxacin exhibited a gradual decline in the PCV between days 0 (34.0±4.0%) and 10 (28.7±1.5%), followed by a return to pre-treatment value by day 14 (34.0±1.0%). Red cell indices showed a similar pattern of decline with the lowest level recorded on day 10 (4.5±0.3X106/μL) from 5.3±0.8X106/μL on day 0. White cell indices on the other hand were within the same range throughout the study. Levofloxacin reduced the mean PCV between days 0 (39.3±5.9%) and 2 (28.7±3.2%) with a gradual return to pre-treatment values by day 14 (33.7±5.3%). The decline in the PCV of dogs administered with levofloxacin may be due to the reduction in all the blood parameters except the mean lymphocyte and eosinophil counts (33.3±6.4% and 2.3±1.5%) which increased from 17.8±4.3% and 1.8±0.6%. The platelet count also reduced by day 2 for ciprofloxacin (1.70±0.17X105/μL) and levofloxacin (1.65±0.26X105/μL). The two fluoroquinolones showed some potential for causing anaemia and a mild blood clotting defect which may resolve within a few days. From this study, prescription and administration the drugs should be with caution especially in dogs with any underlying blood dyscrasia.
Keywords: Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, haematology, dog