Aphrodisiac effects of methanol extract of Smilax kraussiana root in experimental rats
The aphrodisiac effect of methanol extract of Smilax kraussiana was investigated in adult albino male rats The extract was investigated on sexual behaviour based on the parameters of sexual indices such as mount and intromission latencies and ejaculation latency. Others include mount and intromission frequencies, erection frequency, post ejaculation interval as well penile erection in adult albino male rats. The extract caused increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and erection frequency. Others were penile erection and ejaculation latency. These increases were statistically (p < 0.001) significant. Similarly, the extract also caused decrease in both mount and intromission latencies and in post ejaculation interval. These effects were observed in both sexually - active and in - active rats. There was an increase in body weights of all the animals treated with the extract coupled with those of sexual organs such as testis, epididymis and vas deference, these increases were statistically significant (p < 0.001) relative to control. The methanol extract of Smilax kraussiana caused a significant decrease in serum cholesterol level while the serum concentrations of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases as well as the alkaline phosphatase were elevated. These effects were statistically significant (p < 0.001) relative to control. The free radical scavenging ability of the extract against DPPH showed that the extract possessed some antioxidant properties. The photomicrograph of the sexual organs showed no histological abnormalities, rather there was an increase in seminiferous tubules proliferation. . Phytochemical screening of the extract showed that it contained alkaloids, saponin, cardiac glycoside, tannins and phlobatannins. The median lethal dose was calculated as 243.86mg/kg. The observed effects may in part be due to the secondary metabolites of the extract. These effects of the extract justified the folkloric use of the plant.
Keywords: Aphrodisiac, Smilax kraussiana, extract, male rats