Knowledge, Risk Factors and Prevalence of Toxoplasmosis Among Pregnant Women at Primary Health Care Level in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria
Recent information on prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women is lacking despite awareness of its teratogenicity. This study determines the prevalence of anti-Toxoplama IgG and risk factors of Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women at primary health care level. In a cross-sectional study 377 pregnant women selected by two stage sampling from primary health care centres in Ibadan were interviewed using structured interviewer administered and pretested questionnaire. Information was collected on respondents socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about Toxoplasmosis and exposure to associated risk factors. Two milliliters of blood was collected from each woman and screened for anti-Toxoplasma IgG using Enzyme Linked Immunoassay. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi square and logistic regression at significant p-value = 0.05. Mean age of the respondents was 26.2±4.6years. Two hundred and fifteen 215(57.8%) were Christians, while 173 (49.4%) gestational age between 14 and 28weeks. There was no knowledge of toxoplasmosis and its transmission among respondents. Respondents reported habitual eating unwashed fruits and vegetables (150, 44.7%) and and undercooked meat (172, 46.9%) while 48(13.2%) had pet in their houses and 16(4.4%) had ever received blood transfusion. There was significant association between Toxoplasma IgG seroprevalence and religion (p=0.015), eating unwashed vegetables and unwashed fruits (p=0.011), pet possession (0.037) and blood transfusion (p=0.014). Having ever received blood transfusion was 9 times more likely associated with Toxoplasma infection (OR = 8.76; CI: 1.14 – 67.129). Health education and screening for Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women is recommended to interrupt transmission of toxoplasmosis in the community.
Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, pregnant women, pet possession, unwashed fruits, undercooked meat