African Journal of Biomedical Research <p>The <em>African Journal of biomedical Research</em> was founded in 1998 as a joint project between a private communications outfit (Laytal Communications) and members of the Ivory tower. Later, the need to expand the horizon of the journal led to the formation of a group (Biomedical Communications Group, Ibadan, Nigeria) which is aimed at being registered in future as a non-governmental organization involved in the promotion of scientific proceedings and publications in developing countries.</p><p align="justify">The journal is conceived as an academic and professional journal covering all fields within the Biomedical Sciences including the allied health fields. Articles from the Physical Sciences and humanities related to the Medical Sciences will also be considered. The <em>African Journal of Biomedical Research</em> publishes full-length papers, review articles intended to throw light on recent advances in areas within its scope, short communications, rapid communications and mini-reviews. The journal will also carry news on conferences, workshops and products. The guiding principle shall be consistency.<br /><br />One of the dual roles of the <em>African Journal of Biomedical Research</em> is to serve as a conduit for academic and professional media, covering all research findings within the biomedical sciences including the allied health fields. The other role is to put to test the alliance between the private non-governmental sector and members of an African academic community in their quest to propagate knowledge. Furthermore, the journal will make significant and regular contribution to the South-North flow of information, which hitherto has been slow.<br /><br /><em>African Journal of Biomedical Research</em> (ISSN 1119-5096) is published in January, May and September by the Biomedical Communications Group, Ibadan, Nigeria. The journal is published on a page sponsorship basis (Three issues per volume).</p><p>Other websites related to this journal include: <a title="" href="" target="_blank">ttp://</a> and <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> en-US (Samuel B. Olaleye) (Dr. A.O. Ige) Thu, 24 Jun 2021 07:32:07 +0000 OJS 60 Antibiotic Discovery from the Human Microbiome <p>The emergence of drug resistant microorganisms causes a lot of concern particularly in this era marked by a growing array of new microbial infections. A good number of existing antibiotics has been rendered ineffective and as a consequence there is an aggressive search for novel antibiotics with properties that tackle this rapidly growing menace. The human microbiome is a source for the discovery of such antibiotics with rare properties. This paper seeks to review the existing body of knowledge on the human microbiome as a source for antibiotic discovery. The human microbiome is the complete set of genes of all microorganisms that live in or around the body. Because most of these organisms are uncultivable, culture-independent methods such as metagenomics are employed for the functional study of their genomes. Metagenomics, a fast and rapidly growing field of research in Microbiology, is the application of modern genomic techniques to study communities of microorganisms directly in their natural environment, circumventing the need for laboratory cultivation of individual species and it could take any of two approaches: sequence-based or functional approach. With the Metagenomic study of the human microbiome, some antibiotics such as Lactocillin(sequence-based genome mining), Commendamide (functional genome mining), Lugdunin (functional screening) and Humimycins (bioinformatics modeling and chemical synthesis) have been discovered and these antibiotics have been proved useful. Hence, the human microbiome presents an interesting frontier for antibiotics discovery. Although this field of research is still in its infancy, it has prospects of developing with time.</p> C.N. Eze Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Lipophilicity Descriptors Correlate Uniquely with Pharmacokinetic and Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration Parameters for Selected Antipsychotic Drugs <p>Lipophilicity is an important physicochemical parameter of biological relevance; although its in- vivo predictive capability is dependent on accuracy and reliability of platforms used for its determination. This work examines biomimetic attribute of isocratic chromatographic hydrophobicity index (ICHI), experimental logarithm of octanol – water partition coefficient (LogP) and some computed lipophilicity indices for eight (8) selected antipsychotic agents and their predictive capability in drug discovery. The retention behavior of 5 first-generation and 3 second-generation antipsychotics was determined on reversed-phase chromatographic platform using methanol-phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) mobile phase. The retardation factor obtained was transformed to Rm, and plotted against volume fraction of organic modifier in the mobile phase to generate linear graph whose x- intercept is ICHI. Experimental LogP values were curled from literature while computed LogP were obtained using respective software. The experimentally determined LogPoctanol/water and ICHI were first correlated with index of brain permeability (BBB); before all lipophilicity indices were comparatively evaluated and correlated with in-vivo-normalized pharmacokinetic parameters curled from literature. ICHI gave better correlation with BBB index (r = 0.976) compared to Log Poctanol/water (r = 0.557). Comparative lipophilicity evaluation shows clustered pattern for second generation antipsychotics compared to first generation. In vivo correlation was poorer for the 8 drugs (r &lt; 0.7), better with subset of phenothiazine homologues (r = 0.51 to 0.97). The ALogP, LogPoctanol/water, cLogP and ICHI gave highest correlation with the pharmacokinetic parameters. The biomimetic attributes of ICHI is better than for LogPoctanol/water in predicting brain permeability, but lower for in-vivo pharmacokinetic prediction.</p> S.O Idowu Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation and Evaluation of Coconut Oil - based Diclofenac- loaded Solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System <p>Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is one approach for optimizing solubility and consequently the oral bioavailability of class 2 drugs in the biopharmaceutical classification system such as diclofenac which exhibit low aqueous solubility but high lipid permeability. The purpose of this study was to formulate self-microemulsifying drug delivery system based on coconut oil for the delivery of diclofenac, a hydrophobic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Coconut oil was extracted and used in combination with tween 80, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) and propylene glycol at varying ratios for the formulation of diclofenac-loaded solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (DCF-loaded solid SMEDDS) which were encapsulated in hard gelatin capsules and evaluated for drug content, emulsification time and in vitro drug release. The results from the study revealed that over 80 % of diclofenac was released from the SMEDDS within 30 minutes and percentage drug content was above 90 % except for BF3, BF5, and BF6 which were 87 %. Emulsification time for all the batches except BF6 were within 120 sec (2 min). It can be concluded that coconut oil in combination with polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400) and tween 80 could be used in the formulation of SMEDDS for the delivery of diclofenac for dissolution optimization</p> C.A. Alalor Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Formulation Variables on the Microencapsulation of Cassava Seed Oil and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of its Cream Formulations <p>Cassava seed oil obtained from Manihot esculenta Crantz possesses antimicrobial and anti-oxidant properties and can be incorporated in topical pharmaceutical formulations for treatment of wounds, skin infections and irritations. This work determined the effects of formulation variables on the properties of cassava seed oil microcapsules and the antimicrobial properties of its cream formulations. Cassava seed oil was formulated into alginate microcapsules using calcium chloride and aluminum sulphate as cross-linkers at varying oil: alginate ratios, cross-linker concentrations, and curing times. The surface morphologies, particle sizes, encapsulation efficiencies (EE) and FT-IR spectra of the microcapsules were determined. Selected microcapsules were formulated into creams and the antimicrobial activities of the cream formulations were determined against Acinetobacter baumannii NCTC 7363, Serratia marcescens ATCC 8155, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Citrobacter freundii ATCC 8090, Escherichia coli ATCC 25925, Salmonella typhimurium 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6571 by agar diffusion. Microcapsules crosslinked with calcium chloride were smaller with smoother surfaces, while those with aluminum sulphate were large, irregularly shaped with rough surfaces. The EE of microcapsules crosslinked with aluminum sulphate were higher than those with calcium chloride. The EE (23.6 – 66.7%) increased with increase in alginate:oil ratio, concentration of cross-linkers and curing times. The oily cream retained its antimicrobial property against many of the microorganisms, showing highest inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853 and Acinetobacter baumannii NCTC 7363. Creams incorporating Cassava seed oil microcapsules with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties were produced using a simple microencapsulation process with biodegradable and renewable materials.</p> M.A. Odeniyi Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Phenotypic Characterization and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Coagulase Positive Staphylococci from The External Surfaces of Hospital Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) <p>A study to phenotypically characterize and determine the antibiogram of coagulase positive Staphylococci (CoPS) from the external surfaces of hospital cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) was conducted using standard microbiological methods. Out of the 50 cockroaches collected from various hospitals in Uyo, sixty-two percent (n = 31) had coagulase positive Staphylococci which consisted of Staphylococcus aureus (44.0 %; n = 22) and Staphylococcus intermedius (18.0 %; n = 9). The CoPS isolates showed 100% resistance to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Clindamycin and 80.6% sensitivity to Amoxicillin-clavulanate. The CoPS showed multiple antibiotic resistances to ≥ 3 antibiotics, with 60 % exhibiting resistance to 6 antibiotics. Out of the 80 % (n = 31) of the multidrug resistant CoPS that were sensitive to Amoxicillin-clavulanate, none of them showed production of beta lactamase. The cockroaches bore multiple antibiotic resistant CoPS on their external surfaces and their contact can initiate contamination of patients’ food. Pest control measures in hospital are hereby recommended to minimize cockroach related infections.</p> A.A. Adegoke Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Bacterial Contamination in Ready-to-Eat Fruits and Vegetables Sold at Oja-Oba Market, Ilorin, Nigeria <p>Assessment of bacterial contamination was carried out on ready to eat fruits and vegetables sold in Oja-Oba market, Ilorin. Nine (9) samples of two (2) different fruits (watermelon &amp; pawpaw) and vegetable (carrot) were collected randomly from different stationery vendors. Analyses of total bacterial count was carried done on all samples, selective/differential media was used to enumerate total coliform count, total Staphylococcus count and total Salmonella count using 10-fold serial dilution and plate count method. Pure colonies were isolated using streak plate method and subjected to biochemical test using standard procedure. Ten (10) antibiotics were used for susceptibility test against the biochemical tests using disk diffusion method. Mean microbial load ranged from 60.17 ± 3.10 x 10⁴ - 158.67 ± 6.90 x 10⁴ cfu/ml for vendor A; 61.83 ± 2.60 x 10⁴ - 144.33 ± 4.24 x 10⁴ cfu/ml for vendor B and 56.83 ± 3.53 x 10⁴ - 88.50 ± 3.10 x 10⁴ cfu/ml for vendor C. Total coliform count ranged from 7.80 ± 1.10 x 10⁴ - 26.70 ± 2.82 x 10⁴ cfu/ml, total Staphylococcus count ranged from 5.00 ± 0.24 x 10⁴ - 21.17 ± 3.06 x 10⁴ cfu/ml and total Salmonella count ranged from 8.84 ± 1.18 x 10⁴ - 11.67 ± 1.41 x 10⁴ cfu/ml. Antibiotics susceptibility test ranged from 10.00 ± 0.00 – 26.50 ± 0.21mm. Ciprofloxacin and gentamycin had an average diameter of zone of inhibition at 24.50 ± 0.71 and 26.50 ± 0.21mm respectively. The analysis has shown that ready to eat fruits and vegetables sold in Oja-Oba Market contain considerable numbers of pathogenic bacteria.</p> A.E Ajiboye Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Young People’s Knowledge of Sickle Cell Disease and Willingness for Genotype Screening in Ibadan, Nigeria <p>Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is prevalent in Nigeria with 150,000 new cases yearly, owing to poor knowledge, poverty and lack of screening. This study investigated knowledge and willingness to undergo genotype screening among young people who might be contemplating marriage or reproduction during or soon after the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC); the compulsory one-year service for all Nigerian graduates from tertiary institutions. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional design, carried out amongst 355 respondents using a stratified random sampling. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed with due ethical considerations and analysis. The age range was between 18 and 30 years, with more female (54.6%) respondents. Almost all (96.3%) of the respondents have heard about SCD. The prevalence of SCD in the families of the respondents was 10.1% and majority (87.0%) have had genotype screening. Many (60.6%) had good knowledge about SCD but less than half (44.5%) could state the difference between genotype and blood group. Statistical associations were recorded between level of knowledge and gender, discipline of study and willingness. Concerted efforts should be geared towards SCD health education and screening using the platform of corps members’ during their orientation and weekly community development programmes.</p> O.A. Adegbite Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Health-Related Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Among Trainee Community Health Officers in A Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution <p>To evaluate the oral health-related knowledge and practices of trainee Community Health Officers. A cross-sectional descriptive study conducted using total population purposive sampling method with a self-administered questionnaire on 70 community health officer’s trainees at the centre for training community health officers. Sixty-two trainees (response rate of 88.6%) participated made up of year one (45.2%) and year two 54.8%. %). Mean age of 33.5 years (SD=8.65). By gender, females 90.3% were more than males 9.7% while privately sponsored (53.2%) were more than government-sponsored 38.7% A majority had knowledge of Caries (98.4%), Periodontal disease (93.5%) and Oral cancer (96.8%). Year two trainees had more knowledge about periodontal diseases 54.8% compared to year one 38.5% (p&lt;0.05). Most respondents (91.1%) reported dental visit to be important with 87.1% of the opinion that the visit should not be for pain only; 38.7% felt that dental treatment was expensive. More privately sponsored (51.5%) compared to government-sponsored (20.8%) felt that dental treatment was expensive (p&lt;0.05). only 11.3% had visited the dentist in the past six months with dental experience gum bleeding (8.1%), dental caries (8.1%), and tooth sensitivity (21%). A majority (85.5%) rated their oral health to be good. The study showed that community health officer trainees have a good knowledge of oral diseases with the year two trainees demonstrating a better knowledge of caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer and self-rated oral health. Their role in oral health promotion programs at the Primary Health Care level should be encouraged to reduce the burden of oral health diseases in the community.</p> S.A. Okeigbemen Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude Towards Pre-Hospital Tooth Avulsion Care Among Primary School Teachers in Benin-City, Nigeria <p>Traumatic tooth avulsion presents a challenge with regards to its prompt intervention as the ultimate outcome of an avulsed tooth that occurred in any child is dependent on appropriate emergency interventions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the awareness, level of knowledge and attitude towards pre-hospital tooth avulsion care among primary school teachers in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the teachers to assess their level of awareness of tooth avulsion, knowledge and attitude towards pre-hospital care of avulsed tooth. The data generated were analyzed using the SPSS for windows 23.0 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA). The responses were tabulated and expressed as frequency and percentages. Multivariate analysis was used to correct confounding variables. The level of significance was set p&lt; 0.05. Three hundred and twenty four (324) teachers returned their answered questionnaires. Majority of the teachers were females (64.2%) and were between the ages of 41 – 50 years. Most (90.7%) of the teachers were not conversant with the dental terminology “tooth avulsion”. Approximately forty-four percent (43.8%) of the teachers had experienced at least a case of tooth avulsion during their service period. Two hundred and sixty-six (82.1%) of teachers had never received any instruction on how to manage avulsed tooth. only 13 (4.0%) of the respondents were aware of a storage/transport media and how to preserve an avulsed tooth. On the attitude of teachers on pre-hospital care of an avulsed tooth; when asked what will they do in a case of tooth avulsion involving their pupil, one hundred and ninety (58.6%) erroneously reported they will do nothing, 33(10.2%) respondents said they will call the child’s parents, none seeing the need to contact the nearest dental clinic. Majority of primary school teachers in Benin City, Nigeria has very inadequate knowledge regarding emergency management of tooth avulsion. They have limited knowledge regarding the basic tenets of first aid management of tooth avulsion whenever it occurs. Seminars and practical workshop on dental emergency should be organized for teachers and first aid training added to their curriculum.</p> N.N. Okoro Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Perception and Uptake of Prostate Cancer Screening Among a Population of Civil Servants in Ibadan, Nigeria <p>Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cancer in both incidences and mortality among men in Africa including Nigeria. Evidence suggest that African men present with more advanced disease, signifying that they are highly unscreened group for PCa. This study examined the risk perception and uptake of PCa screening among civil servants in Oyo state secretariat, Ibadan. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of 192 male staff of Oyo State Secretariat, selected by simple random sampling technique. Respondents’ risk perception and uptake of prostate cancer screening were examined using a structured questionnaire. Pearson's chi-square was used to test hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Mean age of respondents was 47.44±5.36 years. Up to 140(73.3%) of respondents were aware of PCa, mainly through literature (29.5%), 53.8% had good knowledge of PCa. However, 78% perceived themselves as not at risk for prostate cancer.&nbsp; For 39.6%, prostate cancer is a myth. While only 15(7.9%) had ever been screened, a greater percentage (92.1%) had never been screened. There is significant association between knowledge and uptake of prostate cancer screening (χ2=3.748, p=0.05) as well as between perception of susceptibility and uptake of prostate cancer screening (χ2=26.093, p=0.00). The risk perception for Prostate Cancer is low among the study cohort. There is need for more public enlightenment to improve awareness and uptake of prostate cancer screening services.</p> C.M. Ndikom Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Allele Frequency Distribution of UGT1A6 rs6759892 T>G Valproic Acid Metabolic Enzyme-Encoding Gene among Healthy Javanese Population in Indonesia <p>Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes the metabolic enzyme of valproic acid are one of the important factors associated with interindividual variability in the effective dose and concentration of the drug. UGT1A6 as the encoding gene of glucuronidase enzyme is responsible for valproic acid metabolism, and polymorphisms can therefore influence the drug effectiveness and plasma concentration. This study aimed to analyze the allele frequency distribution of UGT1A6 rs6759892 T&gt;G gene that encodes the metabolic enzyme of VPA among healthy respondents of Javanese as the largest ethnic group in Indonesia. This study used stored biological specimens in the form of DNA isolates from 100 healthy adult respondents who met the inclusion criteria. Genotyping of UGT1A6 rs6759892 gene was performed using PCR-RFLP method with 5'-CTGACACGGCCATAGTTGGT-3' forward primer and 5'-CCAGCAGCTTGTCACCTACA-3' reverse primer. The results showed that the frequencies of T allele and G allele of UGT1A6 rs6759892 among Javanese population in Indonesia were 0.86 and 0.14, respectively. The frequency of G allele in Javanese-Indonesian ethnic population is similar to that found in a study involving Chinese, Caucasian, and African populations. This study recommends further analysis regarding the influence of such SNP on the pharmacokinetic variability of VPA and its clinical response. Analysis of such correlation as a risk factor for cancer is also required as an effort to seek an early and effective preventive therapy.</p> V.D.A.. Ningrum Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Five-year Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Diseases and Disorders in Akure South, Nigeria <p>The burden of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders (GIDD) remains high in Nigeria and varies across regions. This study was therefore designed to examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders over a period of 5-years from January 2014 to December 2018 in Akure South of Ondo state, Nigeria. Descriptive retrospective study was employed and the medical records of all patients diagnosed for GIDD in the two selected health facilities were reviewed within the study period. In total, 12,323 medical records of patients with GIDD were included in this study. The prevalence of GIDD were 44.9% in the year 2014 with the lowest prevalence of 6.7% occurring in the year 2018. Over the 5-years period, lower GIDD cases were 91% compared to upper GIDD that was 9%. Peptic ulcer had the highest prevalence (55%) of lower GIDD followed by gastroenteritis (30%). Hiatal hernia had the highest prevalence (84%) for upper GIDD followed by dyspepsia (11%) and Gastroesophageal reflux disease (5%). Over a 5-year period, the prevalence of gastrointestinal disease and disorders in Akure south in this study shows that lower GIDD is more prevalent in the study area with peptic ulcer as the most predominant GIDD among the study population.</p> T.P. Omayone Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Caregivers’ Perceptions of Burden and Health- Promoting Behaviours among Informal Caregivers of Cancer and Stroke Patients Attending Tertiary Care Facilities in South- South Nigeria <p>Family caregivers’ role in cancer and stroke care is overly burdensome. Studies have considered burden and predictors of burden but the influence of caregiving burden on health - promoting behaviours among cancer and stroke family caregivers in Nigeria is scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of caregivers’ perceptions of burden and health-promoting behaviours on informal caregivers of cancer/ stroke patients attending tertiary care facilities in South- South Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed among 410 purposively selected cancer/ stroke patients’ family caregivers in tertiary care facilities, South- South Nigeria. A standardized Zarit burden interview scale and structured questionnaire were used to measure burden and determine health-promoting behaviours respectively. Descriptive (means, standard deviation and percentages) and inferential (ANOVA) statistics with a Fisher’s protected t- test at 0.05 level of significance were used for data analysis. The respondents experienced severe (F= 14.02; P= 0.810) burden in caregiving to cancer/ stroke patients. The influence of health- promoting behaviours (primary, secondary and tertiary preventions) among caregivers of cancer/ stroke is significantly high in the tertiary care facilities, South-South, Nigeria. Caregivers of cancer and stroke patients experienced severe levels of burden and health-promoting-behaviours in terms of prevention at the primary, secondary and tertiary activities were significantly high among respondents. This calls for knowledge mobilization and dissemination in Nigeria and beyond.</p> P. A Akpan-Idiok Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Protective Effect of Alkaloid-rich Extract of Brimstone Tree (Morinda lucida) on Neurotoxicity in the Fruit-fly (Drosophila melanogaster) Model <p>Brimstone plant is one of the medicinal plants found in Nigeria used in fore-lore medicine with little scientific information on its alkaloid constituents. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of alkaloid-rich compounds from the plant in manganese-induced (MgCl2) neurotoxicity in the fruit fly. In addition, alkaloid compounds will be characterized using gas chromatograph coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Alkaloid-rich extract was prepared by solvent extraction method, fruit flies were pre-treated with the extract (0.5 – 1.0mg/ml) in a fortified diet before induction with MgCl2. The survival rate and negative geotaxis were observed. Thereafter, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, antioxidantive potentials in in-vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), total thiol content, nitric oxide (NO*), hydroxyl oxide (OH*) scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTs*) radical scavenging ability were carried out on the flies’ homogenate. Results obtained revealed that the alkaloid-rich extract regulated the neuro-protective activity of AchE, reduced the reactive oxygen species level in the induced flies with an increased in antioxidantive potential, higher survival rate and increases in the life span of the flies with 50% reduction in the mortality rate. The GC-MS showed a total of (1.55/100mg) of different plant-derived alkaloids such as dicentrine, atropine, aporphine. These alkaloids-rich compounds were found to have anti-oxidative, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic activities. In conclusion, this study suggests that alkaloids from brimstone plant could be the reason for the observed biological activities for the prevention of neuronal related complications.</p> E.E. Nwanna Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Healing Potentials of Nigerian Bee Propolis on Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infected Skin Wound of Wistar Rats <p>This study evaluated the effects of Nigerian Bee Propolis extract on Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) infected skin wounds of albino rats. Two full thickness circular wounds were created each on the dorsum of eighteen (18) healthy adult male albino rats with mean body weight of 126±7.09g. Each wound was contaminated with 108 colony forming unit of MRSA. The rats were then randomized into three (3) treatment groups (n=6) with topical application of Propolis extract (PE Group), Silver sulphadiazine (SS Group) and untreated Control (UT Group). Gross wound healing indices (exudation, edema, hyperemia, wound contraction), histopathologic (granulation, angiogenesis, fibroplasia, epithelialization) and immunologic healing indices were evaluated using standard methods. Bacteria clearance was through culture and quantification. The wound surface exudation and edge edema and hyperemia were prominent in all the groups from day 0 to 6 but persisted in the untreated group till day 12. Wound contraction was gradual in all the groups from day 0-18, it was higher between days 0 and 3 in the PE and SS than the UT group (P&lt;0.05). Complete wound closure occurred on SS (day 15), and PE (day 16). The histopathological changes observed showed neutrophils regressed on day 6 to 18 in all groups and was faster in PE and SS groups (P&lt;0.05). Platelets reduction was ` gradual from days 3 to 18 in all groups and was absent from days 6 to 18 in the PE group. Nigerian Bee propolis has a profound bacteria clearance and healing effect on wound infected with methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) comparable to silver sulphadiazine and therefore recommended for infected wound treatment.</p> O.D. Eyarefe Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Clinicopathological Studies on Rats Exposed to Municipal Landfill Gaseous and Particulate Emissions <p>The study assessed the Clinicopathological changes of Wistar rats exposed to municipal landfill gaseous particulate emissions. Four groups of Wistar rats were exposed to the different sites of landfill emission with use of filters for filtering landfill gaseous emission while the control group was not exposed. Performance of the animals was evaluated weekly, blood and lung, liver, kidney and heart tissues were taken for haematological and histopatholgical examinations. At the end of six weeks exposure, the peak weight was recorded as 108.96±0.45 of Group B as compared to 126.352±0.88 of the Control Group, as well as the decrease in the body weight of Group A-D compared to the Control Group. There was leucocytosis, lymphocytosis and neutrophilia in the rats that were exposed to landfill emission. There were pulmonary, hepatic, and renal lesions while the heart was spared. Changes were observed on the use of filters for filtering landfill gaseous emission. The 3M 6001 CN Gas Mask Carnister Cartridge which filters 50% of landfill emission together with black polythene nylon restricting external air into the filtered cage was not sufficient to reduce the effect of landfill gaseous emission at the end of the exposure period. The screening with PM2.5 material which filters 100% of PM2.5 emission was only able to screen PM2.5 emission but could not screen other landfill gaseous emission. This indicates that landfill gaseous emission is capable of inducing respiratory problems and tissue damage on dumpsite workers if there is sufficient and continuous exposure to landfill gaseous emissions. To prevent the hazard that may arose from dumpsite activities; gas nose mask respirator is recommended for an individual who works as scavengers and landfill workers before entering the dumpsite environment..</p> O.J Oladejo Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Lipid - Lowering Effect of a Mixture of Allium cepa bulb and Camellia sinensis Leaf Extracts in Rats fed on High fat Diet <p>The burden of hyperlipidemia is on the rise globally especially in many low-income countries like Uganda. Management of this metabolic disorder mainly involves dietary and behavioral therapies, which are often met with poor results as they require time and discipline from the patients. The chemotherapeutic options available are expensive, have many side effects and are rarely available to the average citizen. Thus, an alternative effective remedy which is readily available and cheap is needed to combat the problem of hyperlipidemia. This study sought to establish the effect of the mixture of Allium cepa extract and Camellia sinensis extract on the serum lipid profile of the male Wistar rats. Allium cepa and Camellia sinensis mixture in a ratio of 3:7 had the highest antioxidant activity. It reduced body weight, total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL, and in addition it had no toxicity to the liver of the animal models used. It has thus been recommended as a potential therapy for hyperlipidemia and its associated complication of liver toxicity. A pharmaco-kinetic study regarding the interaction of antioxidants for combinations of Allium cepa and Camellia sinensis extracts in different ratios should be conducted to understand the cause of synergism and antagonism.</p> K R. Kimanje Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Qualitative Analysis of One Primary Health Care per Ward in Ekiti State, Nigeria <p>The “One Primary Health Care (PHC) per Ward” policy is an important health care component for achieving health for all. This study assesses the functionality, successes and challenges in the implementation of ‘one PHC per ward’ policy in Ekiti State, Nigeria. In-depth and key informant interview guides serve as qualitative research instruments for data collection. Relevant information was sourced from different stakeholders, including the Executives of the State Primary Health Care Development Agency (SPHCDA), the Local Government Chairmen, the Heads of Departments in PHCs, Staff of PHCs and patients who visited PHC facilities, amounting to twenty-five in-depth and seven key informant interviews. Although all the wards assessed had at least one PHC facility, none of the PHC facilities visited met the minimum standards recommended by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA). PHC facilities located in the rural areas had fewer infrastructural and human resources than those in the urban areas. Routine immunization exercises were improved across the PHC facilities as the Universal Drug Revolving Scheme adopted by the PHCs was successful, largely because of the re-investment of both principal and profit into the purchase of drugs. Results suggest that while routine immunization as an aspect of PHC services had received remarkable successes, the PHC facilities suffered from inadequate equipment and personnel. There is need for a political will and concerted actions that are designed to improve PHC facilities if PHCs are to realize the objectives for setting them up.</p> T.O. Michael Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Smoked Food Consumption as Significant Risk Factor for Advanced Breast Cancer on Bone Scan in Southwest Nigerian Hospital <p>The ingestion of smoked foods has been linked to the development of cancer. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been recognized as carcinogenic compounds which contaminate smoked foods; their ingestion has been linked to the development of cancers such as breast cancer. Breast cancer may be evaluated using the nuclear bone scan as an imaging modality. This study reviewed bone scan results of patients with a positive history of consumption of smoked foods who presented at a Nuclear Medicine facility in South-West Nigeria. Our results show a significant association between a positive history of consumption of smoked foods and the presence of advanced breast cancer on the bone scan ((χ2 = 11.190, p = 0.001, df = 2; Crude Odds Ratio (95% CI) = 1.692 (1.242-2.304). Thus, those patients with a history of eating smoked foods have between 50-100% increase in the risk of having abnormal scan findings. In a logistic regression, this association was retained (AOR=0.591 (0.434-0.805). Recommendations are made to address the significance of these findings.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Y.A. Onimode Copyright (c) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000