African Journal of Biomedical Research <p>The <em>African Journal of biomedical Research</em> was founded in 1998 as a joint project between a private communications outfit (Laytal Communications) and members of the Ivory tower. Later, the need to expand the horizon of the journal led to the formation of a group (Biomedical Communications Group, Ibadan, Nigeria) which is aimed at being registered in future as a non-governmental organization involved in the promotion of scientific proceedings and publications in developing countries.</p><p align="justify">The journal is conceived as an academic and professional journal covering all fields within the Biomedical Sciences including the allied health fields. Articles from the Physical Sciences and humanities related to the Medical Sciences will also be considered. The <em>African Journal of Biomedical Research</em> publishes full-length papers, review articles intended to throw light on recent advances in areas within its scope, short communications, rapid communications and mini-reviews. The journal will also carry news on conferences, workshops and products. The guiding principle shall be consistency.<br /><br />One of the dual roles of the <em>African Journal of Biomedical Research</em> is to serve as a conduit for academic and professional media, covering all research findings within the biomedical sciences including the allied health fields. The other role is to put to test the alliance between the private non-governmental sector and members of an African academic community in their quest to propagate knowledge. Furthermore, the journal will make significant and regular contribution to the South-North flow of information, which hitherto has been slow.<br /><br /><em>African Journal of Biomedical Research</em> (ISSN 1119-5096) is published in January, May and September by the Biomedical Communications Group, Ibadan, Nigeria. The journal is published on a page sponsorship basis (Three issues per volume).</p><p>Other websites related to this journal include: <a title="" href="" target="_blank">ttp://</a> and <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> en-US (Samuel B. Olaleye) (Dr. A.O. Ige) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 An Icon Exits the Ivory Tower <p>Prof. Oladosu Akanbi Ojengbede has taken a glorious exit out of the University of Ibadan having attained the age of 70 years creating a huge vacuum that may be difficult to fill</p> Olatubosun G Arinola Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ethics and Responsible Conduct of Research: Workshop Report <p>The Center for Population and Reproductive Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria , with support from its NIH Planning Grant organized a two Day workshop on “Ethics and Responsible Conduct of Research” at the University of Ibadan Centre for Sustainable Development (CESDEV). There were 8 facilitators and 78 participants. The workshop concluded that responsible conduct of research (RCR) is the practice of scientific investigation or research with integrity involving but not limited to the awareness and application of established professional norms and ethical principles in the performance of all activities related to scientific research.</p> G.O Arinola, O.A Awolude, A Ntekim, T.I.G Aniagwu, W.O Balogun, O.A Kotila, M Oluwasaanu, P.O Adejumo, C.P Babalola, C.P Babalola, O.M Ifechukwude, O.M Oyedele, O.I Olopade, C.O Olopade, O Ojengbede Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Historical Perspective and Fundamentals of Clinical Research in Nigeria <p>Research may be defined as any activity that generates new knowledge and a better understanding of natural phenomena, while ‘scientific research’ uses scientific methods to explore and discover new facts and uses the new knowledge to solve practical problems and explain natural phenomena. Scientific research dates back to many centuries. The earliest reports of research are found in the Egyptian papyrus dating back to 17th century BC. The beginning of documented medical research in the West African sub-region and indeed Nigeria in the 19th century and much of 20th century (pre-independence Nigeria) is traceable to the writings of the Nigerian pioneers of modern medicine. The research process is an iterative cyclical procedure that includes a set of activities undertaken to test a hypothesis - a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. In clinical research, the principles of good research practice are expected to be maintained throughout the research process. These principles include the pursuit of research excellence with integrity, respect for ethics and rigorous maintenance of professional standards, honesty and transparence, openness and accountability, supporting training and acquisition of skills, multidisciplinary collaboration and public engagement</p> R.O Akinyemi, A Ogunniyi Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ethical Principles & Responsible Conduct in Research <p>Research has made important contribution to the progress and development of society. As a systematic and organized activity, the conduct of research must be guided by some ethical rules and guidelines in all the six phases of research including conception of the research, approval from a properly constituted ethics review committee, data collection, data analysis, report writing and dissemination. Research ethics is the application of rules or guidelines for the conduct of research. Ethics has important roles to play in all stages of research, from the conception of the research to the dissemination of the findings. The principles of research that regulate the conduct of research are respect for persons, beneficence, justice, and non-maleficence. Responsible researchers must apply these principles to ensure that research is conducted in ways that ensure that both the goals of science and ethics are achieved. Researchers have scientific and ethical obligation to conduct research with the highest degree of responsibility</p> A.J Ajuwon Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Protocol and Researcher’s Relationship with Institutional Review Board <p>The document of ethical approval is an important official requirement for research involving human participants worldwide. It is the process whereby an investigator submits the full research proposal and related documents including detailed informed consent process to an independent Institutional Review Board (IRB) for scrutiny. The process of seeking review and approval is necessary to ensure adequate measure are in place to safeguard and protect research participants as entrenched in the principles of The Declaration of Helsinki and The Belmont Report. It is the responsibility of every clinical researcher to obtain ethical approval, therefore, their obligation to understand the process of review and establish relationship with local IRB in order to enhance smooth review and approval. This article, therefore, explains clinical research and distinguishes between research and clinical care, clarifies briefly what constitutes a study protocol and describes the researchers' relationship with IRB</p> A.E Orimadegun Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Team Building and Responsible Conduct of Research <p>While team building and responsible conduct of research are essential recipes for optimizing efficient and sustainable outcomes in research, most researchers lack the know-how of how to harness different strengths of individual team members to create a cohesive synergy for effective performance. In addition, most are not trained in the application of established professional norms and ethical principles in the performance of their research activities. These weaknesses intertwine to produce poor research performance teams and outcomes. In this article, the author provides a brief overview of key considerations for building virile and effective research teams and the essential ingredients in responsible conduct of research.</p> O Oladepo Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Research Sponsoring, Financial Management and Conflict of Interest <p>Although project sponsoring usually involves a formal agreement for conducting activities related to research , teaching and service between an institution and the sponsor, many institutions do not prioritise project sponsoring and ensure the inclusion of core components such as statement of work, financial accountability, institutional responsibility for sponsored projects, financial management and conflict of interest(FOCI), and institutional responsibility for FOCI in the sagreements. In addition, early career researchers are not engaged to understand the guiding principles and ethics surrounding research implementation. These often accentuate the conduct of unethical research. In this article, the author provides a brief overview of key considerations in research sponsoring.</p> O Oladepo Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Data Management in Clinical Research <p>No matter the complexity of a clinical research, one critical component that serves as bridge between conceptualization of research idea and the eventual publication of findings is data management. It encapsulates the whole processes involved in managing the life cycle of data in a clinical research project. Data management can make or mar any research. For example, a research with scientifically sound design but poor, incoherent data management procedure would end up with poor quality data. In this article, the author provides a brief overview of key considerations for data management in clinical research.</p> J.O Akinyemi Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Responsible Conduct of Research: Animal Care Use and Research Ethics <p>The use of animals in research has played significant roles in improving the quality of health of humans and animals. Despite these benefits, however, animals’ use in research has been subjected to oppositions on the basis of ethics and research procedures that inflict distress and compromises the welfare of the animals used. Efforts made by the international communities through laws and policies have clearly shown that research involving experimental animals must be done under acceptable scientific and ethical rules. An ethical justification to use animals in research is that the necessity and scientific significance of the research is not only for the benefit of humans, but also for the animals whose welfare may be compromised by the research. Thus, the importance of using strategies that replace sentient animals with less sentient ones, reduce the number of animals used, refine the<br>environment, husbandry and management of animals and provide adequate veterinary care so as to minimize pain and suffering<br>must be ensured. Ultimately, these enhance the welfare of the animals without compromising the objectives of the research. Overall, these are major issues of ethical concern. The recommendations provided by this review on care and ethics of animals used in research are based on published results and proven high-quality scientific principles that promote the welfare of animals. Finally, these can be used to develop animal care and use programs as well as check the standards of performance of research involving experimental animals.</p> S.I.B Cadmus, O.F Daramola Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Responsible conduct of Research: Concept and Issues in Authorship <p>In scholarly publication, authorship defines the roles played by an individual or a member of a team in creating and circulating an original work. It is therefore important to clearly understand who deserves to be an author in a publication. Also, the order or position of authors in a scholarly publication often leads to conflict among members of research teams. This is not helped by the advent of more technical reward systems for promotion, tenure and grants in many institutions, some of which give advantage to the position of some authors. In this paper, some common issues on authorship and peer review processes are discussed</p> Samuel B Olaleye Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000