Dynamics of germs responsible for acute bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso in the last ten years (2005-2014)
The aim of this study was to analyze ten (10) years of epidemiological surveillance data of meningitis in Burkina Faso for high risk germs patterns identification in order to contribute to the strengthening of prevention strategies.
A retrospective study of the past decade (2005- 2014) of cases of acute bacterial meningitis occurred in the thirteen health regions, collected through epidemiological surveillance data meningitis in Burkina Faso. From a total of 88 057 suspected cases of acute bacterial meningitis, we recorded 9134 deaths. From the laboratory confirmed cases, the identified germs were as follows: 56.79% of Neisseria meningitidis, 41.09% of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 2.13% of Haemophilus influenzae. Among the meningococcus isolated, we observed the following distribution: 23.11% of NmA, 58.84% of NmW and 18% of NmX.
Mortality associated with acute bacterial meningitis remains still high in Burkina Faso despite the complete disappearance of NmA since 2012, after the conjugate vaccine A (MenAfriVac) has been introduced in this country. However the emergence of NmX, the reemergence of NmW and the persistence of high prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae are a major concern in the fight against meningitis in Burkina Faso. So, it is necessary, in addition to the strengthening of surveillance, diagnosis and case management to develop and make available and accessible a conjugate trivalent vaccine against NmA the NmX and NmW serogroups.
Keywords: meningococcal meningitis, W and X serogroups, Streptococcus pneumoniae, MenAfriVac