Performance characteristics of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunochromatographic test for routine screening of human norovirus
Noroviruses (NoV) are identified as the major cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis. Controlling the spread of the disease needs early recognition of NoV. This study investigated the contribution of norovirus to sporadic cases of pediatric gastroenteritis in Zagazig University Hospitals and studied the performance characteristics of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(EIA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assay for their ability to detect NoV. Two hundred stool specimens were
collected from pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. Samples were tested for Norovirus presence by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), ICT kit and EIA. 27% of the samples showed the 338-bp portion of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of both Norovirus genogroups I and II by RT-PCR. The ICT assay showed high specificity (97.94%) and high sensitivity (85.18%). The EIA showed high specificity (93.8%) but low sensitivity (64.8%). In conclusion, the high detection rate of NoV as the cause of diarrhea in children reported in this study supports their addition in screenings to identify sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis. The ICT and RIA Norovirus kits may be useful for rapid screening of stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis. However, RT-PCR should be considered for negative samples to be confirmed.
Key words: Norovirus, pediatric gastroenteritis, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, immunochromatographic assay, Sensitivity, Specificity.
Abbreviations: NoV , Noroviruses; EIA, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; ICT, immunochromatographic; RT-PCR, reverse transcription PCR; RdRp, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; ORFs, open reading frames.