Residual mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Burkina Faso
Background: Burkina Faso is one of the countries in West Africa most affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, despite the implementation of a mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention program as a strategy to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of the disease.
Objective: To assess the current risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Burkina Faso.
Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted between December 2014 and July 2016, in the 13 health regions of Burkina Faso. Women who were screened HIV-positive during a prenatal consultation were followed until delivery. Their babies received dry blood spot (DBS) at birth, at week 6 and at 1year, to screen for HIV.
Results: Overall, 186 pregnant women were included in the study, with a mean age of 29.17±6.13 years. Of their children, 430 DBS actually received a PCR test, giving a 91.1% PCR implementation rate. After analyses, 6 (1.3%) babies were identified as carriers of HIV1. The newborn’s serological status was associated with delivery pattern (p=0.000), the administration of antiretroviral drugs to the mother after delivery (p=0.0064), the administration of Nevirapine to the newborn at birth (p=0.022), the use of contraceptive methods after delivery (p=0.028) and the presence of breast affections/infections since delivery (p=0.013).
Conclusion: The results of our study are encouraging and demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions in the mother-tochild prevention program (PMTCT) for HIV-positive pregnant women can be improved through early initiation of triple therapy in early pregnancy and improved adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy.
Keywords: Burkina Faso, HIV/AIDS, mother-to-child transmission, antiretroviral drugs, pregnant women