METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) ISOLATES IN ILORIN, NIGERIA
AbstractNosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control. This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, between January and December 2001. The methicillin disc diffusion method for the detection of methicillin resistance and the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion for antibiotic susceptibility tests, were used. The MRSA prevalence rate was 34.7% (51/147) of all Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Forty-five isolates were associated with infections and 6 were colonizing strains. Thirty-six (70.6%) were hospital (nosocomial) acquired while 15 (29.4%) were community-acquired. Forty-eight patients have received antibiotics previously including 30 who had received multiple antibiotics. Skin and soft tissues were sites of infections in 36 cases and surgical, emergency and intensive care units accounted for 31 isolates. All MRSA isolates were resistant to more than two antibiotics but remained largely susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, macrolides and quinolones and all were sensitive to vancomycin. We recommend the use of third generation cephalosporins and quinolones where indicated, in the treatment of serious MRSA infections in this environment. Control of the spread of MRSA in this hospital must include reinforcement of appropriate use of antibiotics, hand washing and laboratory surveillance for MRSA, particularly in the surgical wards and intensive care units, in order to identify sources of outbreaks.
Key Words: Methicillin-resistant, Staphylococcus aureus, Ilorin.
Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5(2): 189 – 197.