Tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among mothers of below one year of age in difficult-to-reach area of Lagos Metropolis
AbstractA retrospective survey of tetanus toxoid immunization coverage was conducted among 196 mothers of children less than one year of age in a difficult-to-reach area of Lagos metropolis. This was to ascertain the status of coverage among the women presumed to have been immunized with minimum of two doses of tetanus toxoid during pregnancy, estimate drop out rates, and investigate reasons for failure to be immunized and determine missed opportunities to get immunized. An interview was conducted by administering questionnaires using WHO cluster form for tetanus toxoid immunization. Recall history and immunization card review were taken as response. The results showed that with card/history criterion, 109 (55.6%) women received first dose of tetanus toxoid (TT), 80 (40.8%) received second dose and 22 (11.2%) received third dose while 87 (44.4%) were not immunized. Using the card criterion that only established valid immunization, 20 (10.2%) women received first dose and 14 (7.2%) received the second dose. With the card criterion analysis, 14 (7.2%) mothers were protected against tetanus and only 4 (2%) babies born of these mothers were protected against tetanus. A decline was observed in compliance with the regimen of vaccination. Thirty three (16.8%) of women studied missed the opportunity of getting vaccinated and 87 (79.8%) of 109 who started vaccination dropped out. Reasons advanced for failure to be immunized included lack of information accounting for 65.85%, lack of motivation was 20.4% and 13.8% as environmental factors. Poverty and lack of health facilities also contributed to the low level of immunization coverage. For TT immunization to improve in the area studied, factors impeding immunization must be addressed.
Keywords: tetanus, immunization, coverage
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 233-237