https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajcr/issue/feed African Journal on Conflict Resolution 2021-07-27T07:19:19+00:00 Jannie Malan malanj@accord.org.za Open Journal Systems <p align="left">The objectives of the journal are to promote a culture of peace and stability by facilitating the exchanging of ideas and expertise within the conflict resolution community on the continent of Africa, to contribute to developing home-grown (African) methods of preventing, managing and resolving conflict on the continent and the provide a forum for information sharing, networking and learning in the field of conflict resolution. Articles of an academic nature on the theory and practice of dealing with conflict, especially in the context of Africa, are published. Envisaged readers are academic researchers, teachers and students and practitioners in the field of dealing with conflict.</p><p align="left">The <em>African Journal on Conflict Resolution</em> (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and the thinking emerging from African universities, colleges and organisations.</p><p>Other websites assiciated with this Journal: <a title="http://www.accord.org.za/publications/ajcr/downloads" href="http://www.accord.org.za/publications/ajcr/downloads" target="_blank">http://www.accord.org.za/publications/ajcr/downloads</a></p> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajcr/article/view/211163 Foreword 2021-07-23T12:27:59+00:00 Jannie Malan malanj@accord.org.za <p>No Abstract.</p> 2021-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajcr/article/view/211165 Violent ethnic extremism in Ethiopia: Implications for the stability of the Horn of Africa 2021-07-23T12:43:08+00:00 Yonas Adaye Adeto malanj@accord.org.za <p>Scholarship on the challenges of ethno-linguistic federalism in contemporary Ethiopia is copious; yet a critical analysis of violent ethnic extremism in the country and its implications for the sub-region is rare. This article argues that violent ethnic extremism is a threat to the existence of Ethiopia and a destabilising factor for its neighbours. Based on qualitative empirical data, it attempts to address the knowledge gap and contribute to the literature by examining why violent ethnic extremism has persisted in the post-1991 Ethiopia and how it would impact on the stability of the Horn of Africa. Analysis of the findings indicates that systemic limitations of ethno-linguistic federalism; unhealthy ethnic competition; resistance of ethno-nationalist elites to the current reform; unemployed youths; the ubiquity of small arms and light weapons; and cross-border interactions of violent extremists are the major dynamics propelling violent ethnic extremism in Ethiopia. Thus, Ethiopia and the sub-region could potentially face cataclysmic instabilities unless collective, inclusive, transformative and visionary leadership is entrenched.</p> 2021-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajcr/article/view/211167 Exploring the conflict-readiness of parties: The dynamics of proclivity towards violence and/or conflict in Madagascar 2021-07-23T12:55:48+00:00 Velomahanina Tahinjanahary Razakamaharavo malanj@accord.org.za <p>Since the beginnings of the anti-colonial struggle, Madagascar, a former French colony and an island in the Indian Ocean, has gone through nine episodes of conflict, ranging from political tension to high intensity conflicts. These changes of conflict intensity demonstrate that the proclivity towards conflict may take different forms in various episodes of violence and conflicts in the country. This phenomenon may be explored by examining the causal configurations and the co-existence of positive and negative processes and mechanisms which are interacting and co-constructing each other. In order to untangle the intricacy behind the conflict-readiness of parties preparing for conflict at low, medium or high levels of violence, use is made of concepts and theories pertaining to peace, conflict, negotiation and mediation, conflict escalation and deescalation to explore the roles played by the following factors:</p> <p>a) local narratives and metanarratives<br>b) repertoires of action of the actors<br>c) the actors’ framing of the conflicts<br>d) the actors’ polarising of public opinion<br>e) construction of the image of the self and the other<br>f) conflict dimensions (socio-economic, cultural, political and global external)<br>g) accommodation policies<br>This article argues firstly that proclivities toward violence/conflict in Madagascar are related to the coexistence of positive and negative elements, and secondly, that such proclivities are built partly upon the fact that liberal strategies for maintaining peace give rise to negative as well as positive effects on the dynamics of keeping that peace.</p> 2021-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajcr/article/view/211168 Farm Attacks or ‘White Genocide’? Interrogating the unresolved land question in South Africa 2021-07-26T16:09:43+00:00 Adeoye O. Akinola malanj@accord.org.za <p>Apartheid South Africa was noted for historical land dispossession, domination by the white group and disempowerment of the black population. Post-apartheid South Africa has struggled to address the land-related structural and physical violence in the country. Despite the implementation of land reform programmes since 1994, land inequality and impoverishment of black South Africans persist. The government’s failure to use land reform as instrument for socio-economic empowerment has engendered frustrations among those craving for land reform. This has found expression in farm attacks and murders. The subsequent instability in the farming sector and the categorisation of farm attacks as ‘white genocide’ have demonstrated the acute dynamics of the conversation, and the urgency to combat farm attacks, ameliorate the racial discourse and resolve the land question. Through unstructured interviews with key actors involved in the land and farm conflicts, the article engages the land attacks and ‘white genocide’ discourses and provides a more nuanced understanding of conflict recurrence in South Africa. It is claimed that unequal access to land and other intrinsic factors account for the destruction of lives and property on farms. It is concluded that, while white farmers are the major victims of farm murder, a conceptualisation of such as ‘white genocide’ does not adequately characterise the reality. One step among others would be for the government to inaugurate a ‘Panel of the Wise’, comprised of wellrespected elders from all races, who would contribute to land reform and conflict-resolution strategies for the farms and agricultural sector.</p> 2021-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajcr/article/view/211169 Examining the potential of Conditional Cash Transfer for stemming Cape Flats Gang violence: A Directional Policy research project 2021-07-23T13:25:23+00:00 Joseph Olusegun Adebayo malanj@accord.org.za Blessing Makwambeni malanj@accord.org.za <p>Many low and middle-income countries have either implemented or considered conditional or unconditional cash transfers to poor households as a means of alleviating poverty. Evidence from pilot schemes in many developed and developing economies, including those in Africa, suggests that cash transfers do not only alleviate poverty; they also promote social cohesion and reduce the propensity for violent responses. For example, studies have shown a direct impact of cash transfers on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). In some studies, the rate of IPV (including emotional violence) was significantly reduced when one of the partners was a beneficiary of cash transfer. However, there are limited studies on the potential of Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs) for stemming gang violence. Our study contributes to filling this gap. We examine here the possibilities of conditional cash transfers for stemming intractable gang-related violence in the Cape Flats.<br><br></p> 2021-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajcr/article/view/211170 <i>Nhimbe</i> practice in Zimbabwe revisited: Not only a method of socio-economic assistance but also a communal mechanism for conflict prevention and peacebuilding 2021-07-26T16:12:04+00:00 Pindai M. Sithole malanj@accord.org.za <p><em>Nhimbe</em> is an endogenous knowledge practice used in community-based development for community members to provide socio-economic assistance as required. The practice is couched in people’s socio-cultural and moral compass. Households in rural areas use it to assist one another on a wide range of development initiatives, especially agricultural activities to promote and sustain food security and community values. In Africa, practices similar to nhimbe are Harambee in Kenya, Chilimba in Zambia and Letsema in South Africa and Botswana. Since the 1800s or earlier, economic and social benefits have been the known key motivations for the practice of nhimbe. This article is a re-visit of nhimbe from the perspective of its contribution to conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the communities where it is practised. No in-depth studies have been published concerning the conflict and peacebuilding potentials of <em>nhimbe</em>, but it is quite clear that it plays a fundamental role which emanates from its relatedness to social dimensions and community cohesiveness. The analysis here shows that the practice has inherent capacities for pre-conflict prevention, in-conflict mitigation, conflictmanagement, conflict resolution, conflict transformation and postconflict peacebuilding.<br><br></p> 2021-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajcr/article/view/211171 Violence in African Elections: Between Democracy and Big Man Politics 2021-07-23T13:44:33+00:00 Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs malanj@accord.org.za Jesper Bjarnesen malanj@accord.org.za <p>No Abstract.</p> 2021-07-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajcr/article/view/211249 A brutal state of affairs: The rise and fall of Rhodesia 2021-07-27T07:19:19+00:00 Martin Rupiya conyeji@oauife.edu.ng <p><em><strong><span style="color: #1d1c1d; font-family: Slack-Lato, appleLogo, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">A brutal state of affairs: The rise and </span><span style="color: #1d1c1d; font-family: Slack-Lato, appleLogo, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">fall of Rhodesia</span></strong></em></p> <p><span style="color: #1d1c1d; font-family: Slack-Lato, appleLogo, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Henrik Ellert and Dennis Anderson </span></p> <p><span style="color: #1d1c1d; font-family: Slack-Lato, appleLogo, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">2020</span><span style="color: #1d1c1d; font-family: Slack-Lato, appleLogo, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Weaver Press, Harare 412 pp.</span><br style="box-sizing: inherit; color: #1d1c1d; font-family: Slack-Lato, appleLogo, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><span style="color: #1d1c1d; font-family: Slack-Lato, appleLogo, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">ISBN 978-1-77922-373-9 (p/b); 987-1-77922-374-6 (pdf);</span><br style="box-sizing: inherit; color: #1d1c1d; font-family: Slack-Lato, appleLogo, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><span style="color: #1d1c1d; font-family: Slack-Lato, appleLogo, sans-serif; font-size: 15px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">978-1-77922-375-3 (ePub).</span></p> 2021-07-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)