Background: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that is responsible for most of the excess cardiovascular morbidity amongst persons with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The metabolic syndrome increases the risk for coronary heart disease and stroke by three-fold with a marked increase in cardiovascular mortality.
Objectives: This study set out to find the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and the commonest metabolic abnormalities in them in Uyo, South-South Nigeria.
Subjects and Methods: A prospective cross sectional study carried out at the diabetes clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, between January and August, 2008. Data obtained included anthropometric indices, blood pressure and fasting serum lipids. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 10.
Results: Two hundred and forty subjects (106 males, 134 females) were enrolled for the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 62.5%. . Majority of the subjects with metabolic syndrome were aged between 41-70 years with a mean age of. 53±7years. Hypertension was the most common metabolic abnormality present in 130 (86.6%) of the subjects with metabolic syndrome, while low high density lipoprotein (HDL) was the least common abnormality present in 26 (17.3%) of the subjects with metabolic syndrome. Two metabolic abnormalities were present in 114 (76%) of the subjects, while four abnormalities were present in 4 (2.6%) of the subjects with metabolic syndrome.
Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 DM patients in Uyo, South-South of Nigeria is high. With the cardiovascular risk associated with this syndrome, efforts must be geared towards addressing these abnormalities through lifestyle modification, health awareness and medications in order to reduce this complication in type 2 DM patients.
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Type 2 DM, Uyo.