Background: In most people with glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), there is a multiple set of risk factors that commonly appear together forming what is now known as the ‘Metabolic Syndrome’ (MS). This ‘clustering’ of metabolic abnormalities that occur in the same individual appear to confer substantial additional cardiovascular risk. There has been no report on the MS among patients with type 2 DM in urban North-central Nigeria.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the MS among urban North-central Nigerians with type 2 DM and to describe the frequency of the syndrome’s components.
Methods: Six hundred and thirty four (634) patients with type 2 diabetes attending the out-patient clinic of the Diabetes Screening and Care Centre, Jos, Nigeria were screened for the MS. A brief history was obtained and their anthropometric indices and blood pressure were measured. Fasting venous plasma samples were analyzed for lipids. Early morning spot urine samples were obtained for estimation of microalbuminuria using the Bayer DCA 2000® machine. The diagnosis of MS was made based on the new International Diabetes Federation
Results: Of the 634 patients enrolled with mean (standard deviation/SD) age 54.2(9.1) years, 56% were females. The prevalence of MS was 63.6% (74.5% in males and 54.9% in females, p<0.05). The mean (SD) age of patients with MS was 54.7(9.5) years. About 80% of the patients were centrally obese, 63% had hypertension, 62% had high triglycerides and 70% with low HDL-Chol. Among patients with MS, 79% had dyslipidaemia, 41% had BMI e”30, and 36% had microalbuminuria.
Conclusion: The prevalence of the MS in this group of upland Nigerian patients with type 2 diabetes is moderately high. This probably reflects the adoption of Western lifestyles and diets that require intervention.
Keywords: Prevalence, Metabolic syndrome, Diabetes