Intimate Partner Violence and Labour Market Outcomes in Tanzania
This paper takes data from the Tanzania National Panel Survey (TNPS) (2008-2009), fits them to the probit model to examine factors driving the probability of women to experience IPV (Intimate Partner Violence) and uses the propensity score matching to estimate the effect of IPV on women’s probability of employment and earnings. The results show that the levels of IPV in Tanzania are still alarmingly high, relative to the levels in the developed countries. It is found that IPV is exacerbated by some male characteristics, including alcohol abuse, young age, polygamy, cohabitation, among others, with violence being higher in the rural areas than in the urban areas. In addition, low property ownership for women is found to contribute to the problem. A majority of women accept to live by the oppressing traditional norms, which they are using to justify IPV. The study finds IPV to be a catalyst to self-employment for women, which may enhance their bargaining. However, the negative side is that the business incomes from such self-employment ventures are likely to be depressed. In view of these findings, we still need to continue the fight against IPV.