African Journal of Economic Review <p>The <em>African Journal of Economic Review</em> (AJER) is a refereed, biannual Journal that publishes high quality and scholarly articles on economic issues relevant to Africa. &nbsp;The AJER is an applied journal with keen interest in the following areas: Public sector economics, monetary economics, international trade and finance, agricultural economics, industrial economics, development economics, labour economics, health economics, environmental economics and economic reforms.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>This journal has recently been accepted to be indexed&nbsp;in REPEC <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Centre for Economics and Community Economic Development en-US African Journal of Economic Review 1821-8148 The copyright belongs to: African Journal of Economic Review, Centre for Economics and Community Economic Development, The Open University of Tanzania, P.O.Box 23409, Dar es salaam, Tanzania Editorial Note on Special Issue on Covid 19 by Guest Editor <p>The novel coronavirus disrupted the world in 2020. The disease was not only deadly but highly infectious, so countries resorted to extreme measures such as lockdowns, frequent and intense sanitization and social distancing among others to counter the spread of the virus. The pandemic caused massive disruptions in supply-chain lines and temporary closures to businesses such as retail, hospitality and many others. The effects of the pandemic were devasting with most sectors of the various economies around the globe being adversely affected. While shortages in food supply were a common phenomenon, basic items like toilet paper and other necessities were in short supply. The pharmaceutical industry’s research and development eventually led to the vaccine development; however, the pandemic had already caused massive disruptions to economies globally. This special issue focusses on the effect the pandemic had on the economies, data mining, mental health, social infrastructure and other aspects of countries in Africa and around the world. The articles in this special issue identified the problems caused by the pandemic, how the event affected the stock market and other sectors of the economy and recommendations for solutions and other measures to counter the devastation caused by the pandemic. Each article in this covid-19 special issue have a unique approach to research and have added to the body of existing knowledge.&nbsp; Conclusions and recommendations made by the research in this special issue if adapted will facilitate recovery from the devastating effects of the pandemic. &nbsp;This special issue includes six articles as follows. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Loretta N Baryeh Copyright (c) 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 9 3 1 3 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown on Food Intake in Nigeria <p>The outbreak of COVID-19 and the policy measures to halt its spread have undoubtedly changed the way consumers make food consumption and their overall livelihood choices globally. This study analysed the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on household food intake in Nigeria. The study shows that the lockdown had a negative effect on food intake. The overall effects of the lockdown showed that 86% of the sampled respondents were greatly affected. Result showed that 51% of the respondents had their food intake declined because there was not enough food due to closure of markets, movement restrictions and paucity of funds. There was price increase and expenditures on basic food items increased. The study observed rationality theory in consumers as many people stockpiled foods items before the total lockdown, and some used personal savings to smooth consumption. The palliatives provided by the government did not get to many people especially the vulnerable. The study therefore, suggests that government should ensure equitable distribution of palliatives to support the stockpiled food items by the consumers.</p> Bosede Victoria Kudaisi P. A. Olomola Copyright (c) 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 9 3 4 20 The Effect of Trade on Economic Growth in Nigeria: Does Covid-19 Matters? <p>The occurrence of Covid-19 instigated direct and indirect effect on African economy especially Nigeria which was greatly hit. The movement of goods was severely affected as Intra-African trade was disrupted through the shutdown of ports, airlines, borders and businesses. The pandemic led to the lockdown of economic and social activities across the globe and impacted drastic economic downturn and disruption in global trade. Major economic activities were withheld and production of essential commodities was put on hold. &nbsp;In respect to these, this paper carried out a desk review of the effect of trade on economic growth in the era of COVID-19. Conventionally, trade accelerates economic growth but with global disruption brought about by the pandemic, it was envisaged that trade might not be able to stimulate economic growth for the active period of the endemic as many countries implemented locked-down policies. However, with the occurrence of the pandemic, most countries have realised the need to accelerate digital trade facilitation. Also, the need to have long-term trade-related technological investment and structural changes to possibly accommodate less contact during trade processes and facilitation. In conclusion, the outburst of the pandemic has further enlightened African nations on the need for the proposed African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) which was launched on 1<sup>st</sup> of January, 2021.</p> Kehinde Mary Bello Matthew Oladapo Gidigbi Copyright (c) 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 9 3 21 33 Data Mining of COVID-19 Cases and Food Security in Nigeria <p>The poor public health sector, inadequate welfare programme, state of insecurity coupled with the increasing COVID-19 cases in Nigeria had affected the wellbeing of her citizens.&nbsp; During the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, people living in poverty did not have welfare relief that could help them cope with the economic hardship at the time. In this paper, Data Mining of COVID-19 Cases and Food Security in Nigeria is examined using the data from the daily COVID-19 cases update released by the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) online database from February 28th, 2020 – 7<sup>th</sup> December 2020 and data on National Food Prices from National Bureau of Statistics. The data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. Generalized Negative Poisson regression was selected based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and the result revealed that admitted and discharged cases had negative and inverse relationship with COVID-19 related deaths in the country while increase in laboratory confirmed cases&nbsp;&nbsp; had a positive and significant effect on the number of deaths. The pandemic had a negative impact on food prices thereby affecting food security of citizens.</p> Dengle Yuniyus Giroh Ahmadu Abubakar Tafida Copyright (c) 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 9 3 34 50 Are Sectors Hit Equally by Covid – 19 Pandemic? Some Insights from Assessing the Economic Impacts of the Pandemic on Selected Sectors in Tanzania <p>This study uses Input-Output modelling technique to analyze the impact of COVID 19 across different sectors of the economy. This type of modeling takes into account the inter-sectoral impacts of different types of exogenous “shocks” to an economy. The sectors that were assumed to be hard hit are used to determine the impact of COVID 19 and these include transport, wholesale and retail trade, financial services and manufacturing with varying scenarios. Findings show that while the pandemic will affect economic growth, the highest contributors of the overall shocks to GDP are accommodation (-TZS 632 Bill), financial services (-TZS 381 Bill), electricity supply (-TZS 211 Bill), manufacturing (-TZS 175 Bill) and agriculture and livestock (-TZS 114 Bill) respectively. Also, shocks in the manufacturing sector had more effect in absolute terms and in the number of other sectors it has affected. Only financial and accommodation services experienced positive effects, the rest experienced&nbsp; negative effects. In addition. all the analyzed sectors (i.e. manufacturing, retail trade, accommodation and transport), the effects in respective sectors affect financial services positively, partly on account of increased need for more financial supports for most hardly hit sectors. We also note that while the pandemic shocks are likely to have significant adverse impacts on the economy not all sectors will end up &nbsp;being negatively affected by shocks, some sectors&nbsp; such as ICT, financial sector, the health-related goods and some services sectors may benefit from the shocks. These results imply that since manufacturing and transport sectors have higher multiplier effects and more forward or backward linkages, then any government fiscal stimulus packages should deliberately focus on these sectors.</p> Innocent M. Pantaleo Wilhelm M. Ngasamiaku Copyright (c) 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 9 3 51 69 Mental Health Status of Healthcare Providers During Covid-19 Pandemic: Influence of Burden of Care and Work Environment <p>Mental illness is one of the leading causes of unproductivity within an economy. Mental health status of healthcare professionals is essential because they are encumbered with the responsibility of providing healthcare services to patients. This study examined the influence of burden of care and work environment on the mental health status of health care providers at a Federal Neuro-psychiatric Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 210 participants selected through purposive sampling method participated in descriptive survey research. Structured psychological scales were used in assessing and collecting data from the participants. Detailed data analysis was carried out using statistical techniques which included regression. The results showed that burden of care contributed 16.8% variance in mental health status of healthcare providers while work environment contributed 44.9% variance in mental health status of healthcare providers. Implications of study were discussed in line with healthcare &nbsp;providers mental health, health and economic realities of COVID-19. Appropriate recommendations were put forward.</p> Akinbobola Olusola Iyabode Ogunwole Oluwapelumi Boluwatife Copyright (c) 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 9 3 70 83 Macro-Economic Effects of COVID-19 on Food Insecurity: Evidence from Select COMESA Countries <p>Globally, the COVID 19 outbreak and its subsequent containment measures have greatly disrupted global and regional food supply chains posing a big threat to food security. Our study examines the macroeconomic effect of the COVID 19 pandemic on food security in the COMESA region. The study adopted a pooled mean Autoregressive Distribution Lag model (ARDL) to estimate the impact of macro-economic factors and food insecurity in the face of COVID 19 pandemic in the select COMESA countries. Our results reveal a significant long run relationship between food insecurity and food inflation, food trade and COVID 19 registered cases in the COMESA countries. These findings point to need by governments to implement standard operating procedures, roll out vaccinations to curtail the wide spread of the pandemic while providing safety nets to support the poor vulnerable communities to purchase food. Furthermore, the COMESA members need to purse a coordinated strategy to food security to enhance intra-regional trade, food distribution and production.</p> Regean Mugume Roland Muhumuza Copyright (c) 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 9 3 84 105 The Political Economy of Oil and Coronavirus Disease in Nigeria: Imperatives for Diversification <p>Nigeria runs a mono-petrodollar economy, and the government has persistently ignored the calls for diversification except for when the price of oil plummets. Indeed, there has not been a tangible effort to sincerely shift the focus from being perpetually oil-dependent to developing the non-oil sectors of the economy and increase foreign exchange earnings. However, the outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic revealed the volatility of the Nigerian economy and its susceptibility to oil shock and natural disasters. Situated within the context of the Cobweb Theorem, this paper explores how oil dependence has exposed the Nigerian economy to oil price fluctuation and the threat of an impending recession. The paper which relied on secondary data also examines the imperativeness of diversification as a way forward in Nigeria and concludes that the government must take advantage of her abundant resources and pay critical attention to other sectors of the economy such as agriculture.</p> Akinyetun Tope Shola Bakare Kola Ahoton Aihonsu Samuel Oke Solomon Jijoho Copyright (c) 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 9 3 106 128