African Journal of Economic Review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer <p>The <em>African Journal of Economic Review</em> (AJER) is a refereed, biannual Journal that publishes high quality and scholarly articles on economic issues relevant to Africa. &nbsp;The AJER is an applied journal with keen interest in the following areas: Public sector economics, monetary economics, international trade and finance, agricultural economics, industrial economics, development economics, labour economics, health economics, environmental economics and economic reforms.&nbsp;</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal:&nbsp;<a title="http://www.out.ac.tz/" href="http://www.out.ac.tz/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.out.ac.tz/</a></p> <p>This journal has recently been accepted to be indexed&nbsp;in REPEC <a title="https://ideas.repec.org/" href="https://ideas.repec.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://ideas.repec.org/</a></p> en-US The copyright belongs to: African Journal of Economic Review, Centre for Economics and Community Economic Development, The Open University of Tanzania, P.O.Box 23409, Dar es salaam, Tanzania Kazungukmn@yahoo.com (Dr. Khatibu Kazungu) ndanshau@udsm.ac.tz (Professor Michael O.A. Ndanshau (Associate Editor)) Sat, 21 Nov 2020 15:53:16 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Inequalities in effective Access to Obstetric Care in Chad https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201724 <p>This paper aims to fill the gap in the literature regarding the inequalities in effective access to obstetric care in Chad by introducing the decomposition of antenatal care (ANC) consultation in a comprehensive model of obstetric care. The methodology used is the regression decomposition approach in additional to the Probit and negative Binomial Law. The results show that there are significant factors of inequality in effective access to obstetric care. The factors that contribute most to these inequalities are the income of women’s well-being, place of residence and level of education. Combating income inequality, promoting equitable education, and subsidizing transport resources can make the health care system more equitable and significantly reduce unfair inequalities in access to obstetric care. Based on the findings of this study, we propose areas for future research. For instance, it would be interesting to examine women's treatment pathways in their health seeking behaviour. This will make it possible to see women's preference in effective access to obstetric care in Chad.</p> Eric Allara Ngaba, Benjamin Fomba Kamga Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201724 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Mediating Role of Labour Supply in the Relationship between Wage and Fertility for Ghanaian Women. A Marginal Mediation Analysis Approach. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201726 <p>This study explored the effect of wage on fertility rate for Ghanaian women with labour supply as a mediating variable. Using data from GLSS 6, it employed the Marginal Mediation Analysis, which combined average marginal effect and appropriate estimation techniques, to decompose the total effect into direct and indirect effects. Endogeneity was inherent in the mediation model and therefore respondents’ belongingness to a trade union was used as an instrument for wage to correct for the anomaly. Two different instrumental variable estimation methods, namely the two stage least squares (2SLS) and the two stage residual inclusion (2SRI), were used after which the average marginal effects of the estimated coefficients were computed. The 2SLS was appropriate for the equation which had labour supply (hours of work) as its dependent variable because the regressand is a continuous variable. In contrast, the equations whose dependent variable was number of children were estimated by the 2SRI due to the nonlinearity of their measured variable. It was revealed that a percentage increase in wage directly reduces the number of children per woman by 0.85. Also, a percentage rise in wage decreases the number of children per woman by 0.016 through labour supply. Thus empowering women in terms of both their earnings and job opportunities on the labour market is effective in combating high fertility rate among Ghanaian women. The more lucrative the job market is, the greater the opportunity cost of home production activities and hence fertility rate will drop.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Prince Donkor, Zechariah Langnel, Benjamin Adjei Danquah, Gideon Adu-Boateng, Francis Azure Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201726 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Incidence, Depth and Severity of Multiple Child Deprivations in Kenya https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201727 <p>This paper measured multidimensional child deprivation of basic needs using data from 1993 to 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys. The Bristol approach multiple nonmonetary indicators of deprivation and the Alkire and Foster method for multidimensional poverty measurement are applied. The results show that the highest deprivation rates are in information, shelter and sanitation dimensions of child well-being. The lowest deprivation rates are in health and education dimensions. Deprivation rates are highest in North-Eastern and Eastern regions of Kenya. Third, deprivation rates in various dimensions and multidimensional child poverty declined between 1993 and 2014. These results suggest that provision of social halls community social halls with media centers, library/entertainment centers would enable children access information. In addition, government can consider zero rating building materials, and promoting research on appropriate building technologies to increase affordable housing. Investment by County governments in enhancing access to safe drinking water would reduce deprivation rate in this dimension. Child nutritional deprivation can be addressed through food supplements in the short-term and humanitarian assistance (relief food, tokens) for households with vulnerable children. Investments by National and County governments in collaboration with stakeholders will reduce deprivation rates in access to safe sanitation facilities.</p> Isaiah Kiprono Byegon, Jane Kabubo-Mariara, Anthony Wambugu Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201727 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Export Promotion Schemes on Agricultural Growth in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201728 <p>This paper examines the impact of government export promotion schemes on the growth of agriculture in Nigeria. Employing an ARDL cointegration technique, impulse-response functions and variance decompositions, the results indicate a significant positive impact of the government export promotion schemes on agricultural output growth in the short- and long-run. The findings highlight the need to be selective in the choice of export promotion strategies in Nigeria. Most notably, government must not only provide more credit facilities to the sector but also ensure increased recurrent and capital expenditure in the agricultural sub-sector.</p> Olalekan C. Okunlola, Enisan A. Akinlo Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201728 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Rural-Urban Migration, Urbanisation and Unemployment: The Case of Tanzania Mainland https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201729 <p>This paper looks into rural-urban migration, urbanisation and unemployment in Tanzania Mainland based mainly on census surveys of 1988, 2002 and 2012, which are augmented by the other data source. Three stage least squares technique is employed to run pooled cross section data regression to examine factors associated with rapid urbanisation and unemployment, including urban in-migration from the rural areas. Results show that urbanisation and urban traditional sector unemployment are the migration phenomena, and they are both significantly driven by rural-urban per capita income differential and high propensity of in-migration. The results indicate need for accelerated rural development to raise rural incomes and to provide adequate services as a way to reduce urban in-migration. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Jehovaness Aikaeli, John Mtui, Finn Tarp Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201729 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Trade Openness and Financial Openness on Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201730 <p>The study examines the individual and joint effects of trade openness and financial openness on economic growth in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries within the period 1980 and 2017. The SSA countries are divided into two broad categories-low income countries and middle-income countries. The dynamic panel analysis using the techniques of Difference Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) and system GMM were employed. Overall, the empirical findings on low income countries show that trade openness has significant positive impact on economic growth. However, financial openness and the joint trade and financial openness do not have significant positive impact on economic growth. In the case of middle-income countries, the effect of trade openness on economic growth is mixed. However, both financial openness and the joint trade and financial openness do not spur economic growth. Overall, there is no evidence of simultaneous openness hypothesis in SSA economies. Thus, while the economy is open to trade, it is expedient to ensure that appropriate and productive Greenfield&nbsp;&nbsp; foreign direct investments are attracted to SSA economy.</p> Aremo Adeleke Gabriel, Arambada Oluwaseun David Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201730 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Contribution of Emigration to the Agricultural Growth in Franc Zone of Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201731 <p>We analyze emigration effects on agricultural growth in West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) and Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), two regional blocs of Franc zone in Africa. We use LSDVC estimator and World Bank as and OECD emigration databases over the period 1980-2010 for the purpose. The results show the heterogeneity in emigration within WAEMU and CEMAC regional blocs. The results reveal that emigration contributes negatively to agricultural growth in general and CEMAC, in particular. However, emigration and human capital contribute to agricultural growth in WAEMU and CEMAC, respectively. Promoting safe, orderly and regular migration in African countries, especially those positively affected by emigration, should be encouraged. However, the authorities of the Franc zone in general and CEMAC in particular, should encourage policies in combatting emigration and strengthen human capital through education for agricultural development of the region. In addition, the development of pricing policies in favor of producers can contribute in improving agricultural development within the Franc zone.</p> Essossinam Ali, Moukpè Gniniguè, Nèmè Nalèwazou Braly Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201731 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Imported Intermediate Inputs and Manufactured Exports in Nigeria: The Role of Dual Exchange Rate Regime https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201732 <p>This study examines the direction and significance of imported intermediate inputs on manufactured exports in Nigeria under the role of dual exchange rate regime between the period of Q1 2000 to Q4 2018 using data sourced from the World Bank, African Development Bank and Central Bank of Nigeria databases. Vector Error Correction Model was employed to ascertain the relationship among the variables. The results show that all explanatory variables are cointegrated in the long run. The findings from the impulse response analysis points to the existence of a negative response from imported intermediate inputs to manufacturing export, though statistically insignificant. The results indicate a positive and significant response of exchange rate spread on export performance. The result of the Variance Decomposition shows that in addition to own shocks, between 5 to 12 per cent of the variations in manufacturing export are due to shocks in imported intermediate inputs and exchange rate spread respectively. Policy that will work towards achieving a unified the exchange rate system, boosting intermediate imports of intermediate inputs used by local manufacturers to help expand manufacturing exports are recommended based on the findings.</p> Naomi Onyeje Doki, Tersoo Shimonkabir Shitile, Abubakar Sule Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201732 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Empirical Investigation into Demand-Side Determinants of Financial Inclusion in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201733 <p>The overall objective of this study is to examine empirically the demand side determinants of financial inclusion in Tanzania. Using the Tanzania FinScope survey of 2017 that comprised of a sample of 9,459 adults (individuals of 16 years and above), the study employed a probit model to analyse the determinants of financial inclusion in Tanzania. The findings revealed that being a male, middle aged, living in the urban, being formally employed, having more income and more educated to a certain extent foster financial inclusion in Tanzania with a higher influence of formal employment, income and education. Moreover, descriptive analysis established lack of sufficient money and unawareness of the financial services were the most common barriers to financial inclusion in Tanzania. The findings of the study points to direction and factors for improving financial inclusion in Tanzania.</p> Michael O.A. Ndanshau, Frank E. Njau Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201733 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Globalization and Environmental Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201943 <p>Using data from 38 Sub-Saharan African countries for the period from 1980 to 2017, this paper investigates the effects of globalization on environmental pollution by making distinction between the <em>de jure</em> and <em>de facto</em> aspects. The <em>de facto</em> globalization measures include variables that represent flows and activities whereas the <em>de jure</em> measures include variables that represent economic policies that, in principle, orient flows and activities. The second generation panel data tests by Pesaran enables to check the cross-sectional dependence and unit root of the variables. The panel specification with the estimation approach by Hoechle is used to account for spatial dependence, heteroscedasticity and errors autocorrelation. We find that globalization and its <em>de jure</em> and <em>de facto</em> aspects contribute positively to environmental pollution in SSA by increasing the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Policymakers must take action to control long-run CO2 emission for sustainable development.</p> Hodabalo BATAKA Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajer/article/view/201943 Thu, 03 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000