Reforms in science curricula in last six decades: Special reference to physics
This review paper discusses the reforms in science curricula particularly those related to physics curricula which took place after the launch of the Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957. These reforms have started at national level as well as international level by establishing curriculum facilities around the end of 1960s. This review informs science educators about previous research in science curricular reforms, the struggles of global physics instruction transformation starting from United State of America (USA) and United Kingdom (UK), and current science/physics education researches. Recent advances in physics curriculum development, as well as some important science reform programmes that have been done in Africa, are also discussed. The paper also highlights the Competence Based Curriculum developed by the Ministry of Education - Rwanda Education Board. The paper updates science/physics educators on the evaluation of the effectiveness of various instructional methods used in the past facilitating the identification of potential reform approaches to be successful in the future. Some practical recommendations that can be used for effective teaching and learning of science, especially for physics are also outlined.
License agreement and author copyright
AJESMS does not require authors to assign copyright of their published original research papers to the journal. Articles are published under a CC BY license(Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). The CC BY license allows for maximum dissemination and re-use of open access materials and is preferred by many research funding bodies. Under this license users are free to share (copy, distribute and transmit) and remix (adapt) the contribution including for commercial purposes, providing they attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author (read full legal code).
Availability of materials and data
An inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build upon the authors' published claims. Therefore, a condition of publication in AJESMS is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers without undue qualifications in material transfer agreements. Any restrictions on the availability of materials or information must be disclosed to the publishing team at the time of submission. Supporting data must be made available to Editorial Board Members and reviewers at the time of submission for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript. Reviewers may be asked to comment on the terms of access to materials, methods and/or data sets; AJESMS reserves the right to refuse publication in cases where authors do not provide adequate assurances that they can comply with the publication's requirements for sharing materials.
After publication, readers who encounter refusal by the authors to comply with these policies should contact the AJESMS publishing team. In cases where we are unable to resolve a complaint, the matter may be referred to the authors' funding institution and/or a formal statement of correction may be published, attached online to the publication, stating that readers have been unable to obtain necessary materials to replicate the findings.
A condition of publication AJESMS is that authors make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to others without preconditions.
Datasets must be made freely available to readers from the date of publication, and must be provided to Editorial Board Members and reviewers at submission, for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript.