African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences <p>The <em>African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences</em> (AJESMS) is an international publication that aims at generating fresh scholarly inquiry and exposition in the fields of mathematics education, science education and related disciplines. AJESMS offers a forum for familiarizing the world with the goings-on in research endeavours and original thoughts in these important fields of human learning</p> <p>Editorial decisions are made by our Editorial Board of active researchers who manage the peer review process and decide which manuscripts should be published.</p> Faculty of Science Education, University of Education, Winneba en-US African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences 2508-1128 <h3>License agreement and author copyright</h3><p><em>AJESMS</em> does not require authors to assign copyright of their published original research papers to the journal. Articles are published under a <a href="">CC BY license</a>(Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). The CC BY license allows for maximum dissemination and re-use of open access materials and is preferred by many research funding bodies. Under this license users are free to share (copy, distribute and transmit) and remix (adapt) the contribution including for commercial purposes, providing they attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author (<a href="">read full legal code</a>).</p><h3>Availability of materials and data</h3><p>An inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build upon the authors' published claims. Therefore, a condition of publication in <em>AJESMS</em> is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers without undue qualifications in material transfer agreements. Any restrictions on the availability of materials or information must be disclosed to the publishing team at the time of submission. Supporting data must be made available to Editorial Board Members and reviewers at the time of submission for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript. Reviewers may be asked to comment on the terms of access to materials, methods and/or data sets; <em>AJESMS</em> reserves the right to refuse publication in cases where authors do not provide adequate assurances that they can comply with the publication's requirements for sharing materials.</p><p>After publication, readers who encounter refusal by the authors to comply with these policies should contact the <em>AJESMS</em> publishing team. In cases where we are unable to resolve a complaint, the matter may be referred to the authors' funding institution and/or a formal statement of correction may be published, attached online to the publication, stating that readers have been unable to obtain necessary materials to replicate the findings.</p><h3>Sharing datasets</h3><p>A condition of publication <em>AJESMS</em> is that authors make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to others without preconditions.</p><p>Datasets must be made freely available to readers from the date of publication, and must be provided to Editorial Board Members and reviewers at submission, for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript.</p> Analysis of misconceptions in chemical equilibrium among senior secondary school students in Ilesa Metropolis in Osun State, Niger <p>Physical chemistry has been an aspect of chemistry which students find difficult at the secondary and tertiary levels of education. In the past, the effort of researchers has been focused on the research that will identify various causal factors which can be attributed to the performance of the learners in this aspect of chemistry. Also, very few experimental studies, has been carried out to improve students’ performance. In order to find the right bases for all research that will improve students’ achievement, there is a need to profile the misconceptions in the aspect of physical chemistry which is chemical equilibrium. The purpose of this study is to determine students’ misconceptions regarding the concepts of chemical equilibrium. To diagnose students' misconceptions in this area, a two-tier multiple-choice question on chemical equilibrium test was administered to 300 high school students in Ilesa Metropolis of Osun- state, Nigeria. Descriptive analysis was used in analyzing the data, students’ responses in a Chemical Equilibrium Misconception Test (CEMT) were categorized. The results revealed widespread misconceptions among students in the areas related to (1) equilibrium constant (2) heterogeneous Equilibrium (3) Approach to chemical equilibrium, (4) Application of Le-Chatelier Principle and (5) adding a catalyst.</p> Nathaniel Omilani F. D. Elebute Copyright (c) 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 16 2 1 13 10.4314/ajesms.v16i2.1 Students’ conceptual understanding of organic chemistry and classroom implications in the Rwandan perspectives: A literature review <p>Chemistry subject continues to be considered as difficult to teach and learn. This leads to students’ low academic achievement, retention, and negative attitude towards the subject. Organic chemistry as one of the concepts on which technological advancement is constructed sometimes appears to be enormously complex to students. There are some persisting misconceptions about it although different innovative instructional strategies have been applied and this area is of main concern as the learning of students can be extremely hindered in case their misconceptions are not minimized and/or corrected. The review then is to equip educators with knowledge about organic chemistry concept and source of students ‘misconceptions; the misconceptions of students about organic chemistry; the ways of diagnosing students’ misconceptions and remedies of those misconceptions; some learning theories for the effective organic chemistry instruction and classroom implications. The paper is also useful to know more about the minimization of students’ misconceptions and leading them to the great academic achievement and interest towards the subject by employing cooperative learning models; thus, many other different innovative teaching strategies are recommended to apply in organic chemistry instruction</p> Aimable Sibomana Claude Karegeya John Sentongo Copyright (c) 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 16 2 13 32 10.4314/ajesms.v16i2.2 Biology Instructional Resources Availability and Extent of their Utilization in Teaching Pre-Service Biology Teachers <p>Education of pre-service science teachers necessitates inquiry and resource-based instruction to ensure the production of both hands-on and mind-on skilled science teachers. This becomes possible when a variety of instructional resources regularly support the teaching process. This study aimed to identify the types of available biology instructional resources and their extent of use in teaching pre-service biology teachers. The study used a descriptive survey research design and was conducted in three private Universities selected from those offering education in Rwanda. Eighty-two pre-service biology teachers and five biology lecturers participated in the study. Observational checklist of biology instructional resources and questionnaires aided the collection of data analyzed by frequency counts and percentages. The findings revealed that biology instructional resources like classroom chairs, chalkboards, laboratories, microscopes, centrifuge, slide projectors, biology textbooks were available while resources like a class whiteboard, classroom overhead projectors, electrophoresis unit, recorders, Polymerase chain reaction machines, among others, were absent. The findings also revealed low-level use of available biology instructional resources in teaching pre-service biology teachers. The implication is the likelihood of producing less competent future biology teachers. The provision of adequate biology instructional resources, as well as the monitoring of their use in teaching biology, was recommended</p> Josiane Mukagihana Florien Nsanganwimana Catherine Aurah Copyright (c) 2021 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 16 2 33 50 10.4314/ajesms.v16i2.3 Impact of gamification and experiential learning on achievement in mathematics among learners with hearing impairment in Lagos State, Nigeria <p>There had been mixed observations about the ability and achievement of learners with hearing impairment. However, there are consensus that impactful teaching effort could aid in stimulating innovative approaches in teaching and learning of mathematics of learners particularly among learners with hearing impairment. This study seeks to appraise the impact of gamification and experiential learning on achievement in mathematics among learners with hearing impairment in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study population comprised learners with hearing impairment in Lagos State. Purposive and simple random sampling were used to select sample of 24 learners. The research design used was quasi-experimental pretest posttest traditional method &nbsp;group. Mathematics Knowledge Check (MKC) was used to collect data and the data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, mean difference and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study found out that achievement in Mathematics differs as a result of exposing learners with hearing impairment to gamification and experiential learning methods of instruction. Besides, the study observed that the two interventions benefit were of benefit to male and female learners with hearing impairment. The employment of gamification and experiential learning instructional strategy was recommended for mathematics lessons of learners with hearing impairment.</p> Samuel Adeniyi Olaotan Kuku Copyright (c) 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 16 2 51 65 10.4314/ajesms.v16i2.4 An Overview of Learning Cycles in Science Inquiry-based Instruction <p>While a plethora of researchers have acknowledged the importance of learning cycles as a model of instruction in a constructivist supported enquiry science education, the rising number of learning cycle models however raises compelling questions about validity, hence the need for a comprehensive overview and analysis of the comparative strengths and weaknesses of these models. This paper examined among the very many, four major learning cycles; 3E, 5E, 7E and 9E, on the scales of knowledge construction, to provide adequate information for decision making regarding their preference and use. While the 3E provides the very basic framework for expansion, it missed addressing the learners’ initial dialogic engagement with teachers as well as summative evaluation of learning. Critical analysis informed the conclusion that there are three main goals common to the learning cycles under review namely; the development of conceptual understanding, process skills and critical thinking. A well-planned and implemented 5E model generally meets the inquiry-based constructivist learning goals, although it is silent on transfer of knowledge outside of the classroom. This transfer of knowledge, provided for in the 7E, is the major meaningful difference between 5E and 7E. The three new phases introduced in the 9E, Echo, Emend and E-search, were assessed to be redundant. After a thorough needs assessment of the phases of the learning cycles under review, a six-phase learning cycle is proposed comprising Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate and Extend.</p> Christian Nicol Emmanuel Gakuba Gonzague Habinshuti Copyright (c) 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 16 2 76 81 10.4314/ajesms.v16i2.5 Teachers’ perceptions towards the utilization of WhatsApp in supporting teaching and learning of chemistry during COVID-19 pandemic in Rwandan secondary schools <p>This paper reports the results about teachers’ perceptions towards the utilization of WhatsApp in supporting teaching and learning of chemistry during the COVID-19 pandemic in Rwandan selected secondary schools. The collected data by using a survey questionnaire were from 18 chemistry teachers in Nyarugenge and Kicukiro Districts. The findings illustrated that WhatsApp is effective for teaching chemistry and supporting students learning. This application promotes students’ motivation, engagement, collaboration, interaction, participation, and ubiquitous learning. Despite the facilitation of collaboration between teachers and their students while using WhatsApp, the internet connection related problems including its cost and availability were among the hindering factors for effective collaboration for both students and teachers. The lack of smartphones and computers for some students, teachers, parents, or guardians was among the highlighted limitations for the participation of some students. The limited students’ management and their distraction were also highlighted by some teachers. The provision of computers, smartphones, and enough internet connection for all teachers, parents, or guardians were among the proposed potential solutions. To deal with students’ management and distractions while learning via WhatsApp, there should be the follow-up and guidance provided by teachers, guardians, or parents. Chemistry teachers and students are recommended to use WhatsApp as a supporting learning tool due to its added value of providing ubiquitous learning. Parents, boards in charge of education, and other educational stakeholders should integrate WhatsApp in teaching and learning to complement classroom learning.</p> Ezechiel Nsabayezu Aloys Iyamuremye Jean de Dieu Kwitonda Jean de Dieu Kwitonda Agnes Mbonyiryivuze Copyright (c) 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 16 2 83 96 10.4314/ajesms.v16i2.6 Effectiveness of Practical Work in Physics on Academic Performance among Learners at the selected secondary school in Rwanda <p>The current study investigates the effectiveness of practical work in physics on academic performance among learners of a secondary school in Rwanda. The study employs a quasi-experimental research design specifically pretest-posttest control group design (control group and experimental group). Two groups of learners of senior one at Groupe Scholaire Rugoma were treated differently through an expository and practice-based approach respectively. Physics achievement test prepared to evaluate the effect of practical work indicated that learners in the experimental group outperformed those of the control group treated by the expository teaching method. Various factors that may advance or hinder the implementation of practical work were identified and views from science teachers were collected. Most of the respondents strongly agreed that those factors have a significant impact on the implementation of practical work which in turn influence learners’ overall academic performance during Physics Achievement Test (PAT). A significant difference was observed from the statistical analysis performed by using SPSS version 21.0. (Pretest and posttest among learners in the experimental group; t = 27.243; 32.743; MD = 8.4239; 13.12500 respectively whereas the pretest and posttest among learners are as follow, t = 28.442; 32.627; MD = 9.82500; 2.38005 respectively and for all performance evaluation hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. Based on the observed results, it was found that practical work was more effective in improving learners’ performance in Physics. It was therefore concluded that practical work continues to be a promising approach in teaching sciences, particularly teaching Physics in secondary schools.</p> Jean Twahirwa Etienne Twizeyimana Copyright (c) 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 16 2 97 108 10.4314/ajesms.v16i2.7 Effect of technical university students’ language proficiency on their academic performance measured by their final cumulative grade point average <p>The importance of language in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) cannot be over-emphasized. Although TVET focuses on skill acquisition, the desired skills cannot be acquired, if students are not proficient in, and cannot fully comprehend, the language of instruction during lectures and examinations. It was for this reason that, the current study looked at the effect of students’ language proficiency on their academic success as measured by their final cumulative grade point average (CGPA) using multilevel modelling techniques. Gender differences in the students’ academic success were also explored. The study was based on a data-set of 17,714 students (5,882 female and 11,832 males) from one Ghanaian Technical University in Ghana. It was observed that communication skills course grades, the proxy measure of their language proficiency, accounted for 15% of the total variance in the students’ CGPA. This confirms the important role language plays in TVET. The study findings are expected to assist TVET stakeholders in systemically re-orienting the minds of TVET students towards proficiency in the language of instruction.</p> Maame-Afua Nkrumah Copyright (c) 2021-05-29 2021-05-29 16 2 109 120