Water use efficiency of six rangeland grasses under varied soil moisture content levels in the arid Tana River County, Kenya
This study evaluated water use efficiency (WUE) of six range grasses, namely; Chloris roxburghiana, Eragrostis superba, Enteropogon macrostachyus, Cenchrus ciliaris, Chloris gayana, and Sorghum sudanense grown at 80, 50, 30% field capacity (FC) soil moisture contents and rainfed treatment which represented water deficit conditions. The changes in soil moisture content were measured by Gypsum Block which aided in determining the irrigation schedules. The grasses demonstrated varied levels of WUE which was evaluated by amount of biomass productivity in relation to evapotranspired water during the growing period. The three soil moisture content treatments had higher water use efficiency than rainfed conditions. There was a declining trend in WUE with grass species maturity where S. sudanense had higher WUE at 8, 10 and 12th weeks (> 15 kg DM ha-1 mm-) in all the treatments followed by C. gayana and E. macrostachyus and were significantly (p<0.05) different from E. superba, C. ciliaris and C. roxburghiana which had WUE less than 10 among the six grass species. The 30% FC soil moisture content had higher WUE at all the phenological stages for S. sudanense, C. gayana and E. macrostachyus compared to 80, 50% FC and rainfed with all having WUE greater than 20 kg DM ha-1 mm-1. These three species are recommended for irrigated pasture establishment in semi-arid lands where water supply uncertainties exist, owing to their high water use efficiency under lower soil moisture levels.
Key words: Water use efficiency (WUE), water stress tolerance, range grasses, pasture irrigation, water deficit, Kenya.