Investigation into the physico-chemical properties and hydrochemical processes of groundwater from commercial boreholes In Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
The physico-chemical and hydrochemical study of commercial borehole waters in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State have been carried out. Eight commercial borehole water samples were analyze for various physico-chemical parameters using standard methods. The results obtained shows that the water samples quality examined compared favourably with WHO (1998) standard for drinking water. Although the values for pH (5.20±0.14, 6.10±0.10, 6.20±0.10, 6.20±0.20 in well 2, 5, 6, and 7 respectively), electrical conductivity (EC) of 520.00±5.50 mS/cm in well 7, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 9.55±0.26 mg/L in well 3, Ca (9.25±0.10, 8.25±0.03 and 7.90±0.10 mg/L in well 2, 3, and 7 respectively) and all values obtained for Fe exceeded the WHO permissible limits for safe drinking water. The concentration of heavy metals; lead, copper, chromium, cadmium and arsenic (major sources of ground water pollution) were below detectable limit except at well 5, 6, and 7 where lead values of 0.03±0.001, 0.008±0.00, 0.04±0.00 mg/L respectively were obtained. The hydrochemical analysis shows that ion exchange and silicate weathering are the major prevailing hydrochemical processes in the groundwater. All the results obtained were however not significantly different from other reported values within the Niger Delta region. The higher concentrations of some of the parameters (pH, Ec, BOD, Fe, Ca2+) and the present of lead in some samples is an indication of some levels of pollution in the boreholes/ground water. This therefore calls for appropriate treatment measures before the consumption of these waters by the populace to avoid long term accumulative health problems of these pollutants. Recommendations on the strategies to reduce/eliminate some of these pollutants were made.
Key words: Physico-chemical properties, hydrochemical processes, groundwater, boreholes, Yenagoa.