Effect of Deep-Fat Frying on Chemical Properties of Edible Vegetable Oils Used By Senegalese Households
Deep-fat frying performed at high temperatures under atmospheric pressure is a common method of preparing dishes in Senegalese culinary practices. This operation can lead to deterioration of physical, chemical, nutritional and sensory properties of oil, which affects its frying performance. It also results in the production of volatile products such as aldehydes and non volatile fraction which remains in the frying medium. Some of these remaining products have been implicated in producing adverse health effects. Highly oxidized oils may also produce polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which have carcinogenic effect. This work was intended to evaluate the effect of frying on chemical properties of edible vegetable oils. Frying process was applied to meat, fish and potatoes in Senegalese culinary conditions. Ten (10) oil samples, each of three different brands, were purchased from wholesalers and retailers in different neighborhoods of Dakar. The samples were subjected to frying at 220°C for 40 min and then oils were withdrawn in amber bottles samples of which were taken for analysis. Acid value, peroxide value and total polar components were used to evaluate the quality of these oils after initial determination of the iodine value and the moisture and volatile matter content. Acid value increased after 40 min of frying and values ranged from 0.62 to 1.08 mg/kg after frying fish, while those for meat and potatoes ranged from 0.39 to 0.73 and 0.37 to 0.51 mg/kg, respectively. Peroxide value increased slightly for peanut oil (A) and sharply for peanut oil (B) and sunflower oil (C). Frying fish led to high values of total polar components whereas those obtained after frying meat and potatoes during 40 min did not exceed 15.27% except for peanut oil (A). Therefore, frying affects chemical parameter values of edible vegetable oils, which increase at a level depending on the product to be fried. A sharp Total Polar components increase was obtained after frying fish using the three types of oil with values exceeding, sometimes, the maximum level set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This latter chemical parameter is considered a good indicator of overall quality of frying oil. Thus in Senegalese culinary practices where frying oil is often reused in families with low-income, such a situation may lead to significant sanitary risks. In view of these results, investigations need to be extended to other types of oil marketed in Senegal.
Keywords: edible-oils, quality, frying, fish, meat
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