Chemical composition, functional and baking properties of wheat-plantain composite flours
The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with plantain flour in bread and biscuit making were investigated. Matured plantains (Musa paradisiaca) were pulped, blanched, dehydrated and pulverized. The wheat flour (WF) was substituted by plantain four at levels of 5, 10, 20 and 30% and 0, 50, 60, 70, 80 90 and 100% for bread and biscuit making, respectively. The protein content of composite breads ranged from 5.6 – 10.2%. No significant difference was observed in the nutrient contents of control (wheat bread) and composite bread at 5% level of plantain addition. Water and oil absorption capacities of composite flours increased with increasing levels of plantain flour in the blend. Emulsion and foam capacities as well as emulsion and foam stabilities decreased at higher (40–100%) levels of dilution with plantain flour. As the plantain flour content of the composite dough increased beyond 5%, alveograph values for dough resistance to extension (R), extensibility (E) and mechanical work of dough deformation (W) decreased. The oven spring and specific loaf volume decreased significantly with increased plantain content of blends. Sensory panel rating (80.2%) of the 10% plantain flour content of composite bread was not significantly different from the score (83.8%) of the 5% level of WF substitution but was significantly different from a score of 88.4% for the control (Wheat-bread) (P≤0.05). The flow and break strength of wheat-plantain composite biscuits decreased with increasing dilution of wheat with plantain flour. At 50 and 90% plantain flour substitution level the flow and break strengths were 54.2% and 1.90 kg and 50.8% and 1.20 kg, respectively, while the 100% wheat biscuit had a flow and break strength of 69.4% and 3.45 kg respectively. Thus the mean scores for colour, taste and crispness/aroma were generally high for all biscuits samples containing 0–70% plantain flour. Generally the biscuits were highly rated for colour (75.1%), taste (74.9%) and crispness/aroma, 71.6% of the total score for each characteristic on a 9-point hedonic scale. Technically, organoleptically acceptable breads and biscuits were formulated from wheat-plantain composite flours using up to 80:20 (w/w)% and 60:40/w/w) ratios of wheat:plantain flour as maximum acceptable levels of substitution for breads and biscuits, respectively.
Key words: Plantain, composite, dough bread and biscuit.
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