Assessment of some serum biochemical and haematological parameters in blood samples of Japanese quails fed detoxified Jatropha seed cake
Jatropha curcas L. is a multipurpose shrub plant that grows wildly in the tropics and subtropics. The nutritional value of Jatropha seed cake (JSC), a by-product of Jatropha curcas seeds, compares favourably with conventional seed meals with a crude protein content of 58-64% and higher essential amino acids (excluding lysine) than soybean meal. However, the presence of anti-nutrients restricts the use of Jatropha seeds in poultry feeding. If properly detoxified, JSC can be utilised in livestock feeding. The detoxification and reuse of this seed cake are vital for adding economic value and also to reduce the potential environmental damage that may be caused by improper disposal of this by-product. The study was carried out to investigate the effect of heattreated Jatropha seed cake on haematological and some serum biochemical parameters of growing Japanese quails. Diet 1 was a corn-soybean meal (basal diet) with no Jatropha seed cake (JSC). Diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained the basal diet and 5, 10, 15 and 20% JSC inclusion respectively, in a completely randomised design. Two hundred 14-day–old Japanese quails were grouped, weighed and randomly assigned to five treatments with five replicates of eight birds each in an experiment that lasted for two weeks. On day 28, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of two birds per replicate into vials containing the anticoagulant ethylene diamine tetra-acetate (EDTA) for haematology and blood without EDTA to obtain serum for analysis. Diets had no significant effect on the haematological parameters of birds on the experimental diets except on the white blood cell (WBC) counts. White blood cell counts of birds fed 10% JSC diet was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those fed 5% JSC diet but WBC counts of birds on both diets were similar to birds on other dietary treatments. Total proteins of birds fed the control, 5%, 10% and 15% JSC diets were similar but significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of birds on 20% JSC diet. Serum urea, creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of birds on the experimental diets were identical but significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of birds on 20% JSC diet. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of birds on 15 and 20% JSC diets were similar to those on the control diet. It is concluded that 10% heat-treated jatropha seed cake could potentially be used in Japanese quail feeding because it reflects the optimal physiological state of the birds compared to other diets.
Keywords: Jatropha seed cake, Japanese quails, heat treatment, blood metabolites