Effect of partially substituting wheat flour with fish bones powder on the properties and quality of noodles
Adding salmon (Salmo salar) fish bone powder (SBP), as a partial substitute for refined wheat flour in the production of fresh noodles, was developed as a method of utilizing a waste product from fish industry, reducing the use of wheat flour and enhancing the nutritional quality of the noodles. Refined wheat flour was partially substituted with salmon bone powder at 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20% of refined wheat flour. The noodles, made
from these combinations, were then tested for their color, cooking quality, texture, chemical, sensory properties and level of microorganism during storage. The results indicated that as the amount of salmon bone powder increased, the appearance became yellowish and darker, the elasticity and softness of the noodles were decreased. Cooking quality; cooking time and cooking yield decreased while cooking loss was increased. When the noodles made from 15% salmon bone powder plus 85% refined wheat flour were tested their moisture content, protein, total carbohydrate, fat and ash were 36.45, 3.34, 43.60, 3.34, 6.74 g/100g, respectively and their calcium content also progressively increased with increasing levels of salmon bone powder in the refined wheat flour. The calcium content from noodles made from 15% salmon bone powder plus 85% refined wheat flour was 1.84 g/100g. The sensory evaluation in terms of appearance, color, odor, elasticity, softness, smoothness, taste and overall acceptability showed that the cooked noodles containing 15% salmon bone powder had similar characteristics to cooked noodles made from 100% refined wheat flour. Levels of microorganism including total plate count, yeasts and molds remained low, while Escherichia coli, Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Samonella spp. were non-detected. All microorganism levels within acceptable levels and remained within criterion of microbiological quality standardization of foods and tableware announced by Department of Medical Science (No.3/2017) throughout the storage. Overall, the noodles retained acceptable quality for at least 9 days in refrigerator at 4±2oC.
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